Child Abuse
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Child Abuse Child Abuse Presentation Transcript

  • Child Abuse: Prediction and Prevention
    • Stress and Anger as Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas: Predicting Parental Child Maltreatment Risk
    • by
    • Christina M. Rodriguez and Michael J. Richardson
    • The Effect Of Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families On Trends In Abuse And Neglect
    • by
    • Bradford D. Gessner
  • Child Abuse: Prediction and Prevention
    • Reviewed by
    • AABDA J. KHAN
    • HEIDI M. RAFTER
    • DEVERY W. MCDONALD
    • PSYC 308
    • UMBC
  • Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • This study examines aspects of Social Information Processing (SIP) theory in predicting physical maltreatment risk in a community sample.
  • Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • What is SIP Theory?
    • The SIP theory proposes that cognitive processes within parents potentiate their risk to abuse
    • At-risk or abusive parents report maladaptive cognitions pertaining to parent-child interactions, and negative attributions about their children’s behavior
  • Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • Four Stages of Information Processing
      • Stage 1= Parents perception of a new event (inaccurate perceptions of a parent-child situation are associated with abuse risk)
      • Stage 2= Parents’ expectations, interpretations, and evaluations of the situation affect their likelihood to abuse
  • Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • Four Stages of Information Processing
      • Stage 3= Parents integrate all available information from the situation and consider their alternative response options.
      • Stage 4= Parents implement their selected discipline response and monitor their own behavior (abusive parents experience difficulty monitoring the escalating severity of their physical discipline.
  • Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • Hypothesis
    • Preexisting cognitive schemas can predict child abuse beyond the contextual factors of parental stress or anger.
  • Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • Independent variable #1:
    • Contextual Factors-
    • Parental stress parents experience
      • Parents experiencing greater stress display more controlling, abusive and punitive parenting behaviors.
    • Parental anger & hostility proposed as markers of negative affect that can influence the SIP model
      • Inability to manage anger has been implicated in abuse risk
      • The extent of physical punishment a parents delivers is also associated with the degree to which a parent felt angered by the child
  • Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas
    • Measures of Contextual Factors
    • Parental stress
      • Parenting Stress Index (PSI)
      • 101 items on a 5-point Likert-type scale
    • Parental anger
      • State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI)
      • 44 items on a 4-point Likert-type scale
  • Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • Independent variable #2:
    • Parenting-related Preexisting Cognitive Schema
    • (beliefs about discipline, their child, the nature of parenting and parent-child interactions)
    • External locus of control
    • Understanding of developmentally appropriate norms
    • Empathic perspective taking
    • Parental positive attachment to a child
    • Measures of Preexisting Schema
    • External locus of control
      • Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI); 28-item measure of empathy
    • Developmentally appropriate norms
      • Child Development Questionnaire (CDQ);
      • Parents indicate age of 40 developmental abilities
    • Empathic perspective taking
      • Parent Attribution Test (PAT);
      • Parents rate success or failure of child interactions
    • Parental positive attachment
    • Parental Attachment Level (PAL); 11 items on a 5-point Likert-scale
    Method “Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas ”
  • Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • Dependent Variables and Measures
    • Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI):
        • 77 items --screen for physical child abuse risk
    • Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-PC)
        • Frequency of specific behaviors implemented during parent-child conflicts
    • The Parenting Scale
        • 30 items on a 7-point scale to identify dysfunctional disciplinary style.
  • Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
      • Participants
        • 115 parents of children ages 4-12 (M= 7.44 years) from a preschool and elementary school in the Mountain West
        • 92% White, 6.1 % Hispanic, 1% Native American, 1% other
        • n = 86 mothers, n = 29 fathers
        • Mean age of Parents = 37.62 years
        • Majority reported living with a partner
        • Raising average of 3 children
        • Mean annual income of $ 50,067
          • Median $45,000
  • Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
      • Procedures
        • Parents recruited from child’s school through a consent form that was sent home about a study on parenting and discipline
        • Interested parents returned the consent forms with contact information; one-third returned
        • Session scheduled in their home with those who responded
        • All instructions and items delivered on laptop computer
        • Responses entered anonymously and privately
        • Parents received $10 compensation
  • Results “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
        • Preliminary correlational analyses indicated the age of parent, number of children in family, and parents’ number of years of education were unrelated
        • CTS Psychological Aggression scores was significantly negatively correlated with age of parent meaning younger parents reported using more psychological aggression tactics
        • No significant associations between income and an predictors
        • No substantive differences between groups to be more likely to exceed developmental norms
        • No differences in parents living with partner and no partner
  • Results “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas
        • Parent’s knowledge of developmental norms was unrelated to predictors
        • Parenting stress and anger expression we associated with a number of predictors
        • External locus of control orientation and empathic perspective-taking ability was also associated with a number of predictors
        • CAPI Abuse Scale scores for abuse potential were significantly associated with stress, anger, empathy, locus-of-control orientation, and attachment measures.
        • CTS-PC Psychological Aggression subscale had several strong effects with predictors and Neglect scale
  • Discussion “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • Findings partially support the hypothesis that preexisting schemas can help predict physical child abuse beyond contextual variables
    • Parents’ stress and anger play a critical role across the three measures of parent-child aggression risk
    • Among the cognitive schemas, external locus-of-control orientations were correlated to all three measures of parent-child aggression risk
    • Empathetic perspective taking predicted overreactive discipline while perceived attachment predicted child abuse potential
    • In contrast, development expectations were not significantly associated with the dependent variables or predictors
  • Discussion “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas”
    • The study is limited by the nature of the parents who volunteered.
    • Future research should consider single parents with more ethnic and racial diversity
    • Study relied on parent self-reporting measures
    • Study was limited to physical child abuse.
    • Correlational nature of the research design cannot address causality.
  • Introduction “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families”
    • Reasons for study—Healthy Families Alaska Program
      • Home visitation program designed in 1995 to decrease child abuse and neglect and improve other child health outcomes
      • After several years, state legislature required an evaluation of the program
      • Several studies from other areas have found that home visitation programs could decrease the risk of child abuse and neglect under some circumstances
      • Primary goal of program was to decrease the occurrence of abuse and neglect among high-risk families
  • Introduction “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families
    • Hypothesis
      • Among children less than 2 years of age, enrollment would have a measurable impact on substantiated physical abuse rates when compared to unenrolled
      • Program would impact abuse and neglect referral rates and neglect substantiation
  • Method “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families”
      • Enrollment status was linked to birth certificates files for 1996-2002 which were linked to child protective services database for 1996-2004
      • Families selected for study based Kempe Family Stress Checklist score
      • Families divided into two high-risk groups:
        • Children born pre-term ( n = 529)
        • Children of single mothers with prenatal alcohol use
        • ( n = 499)
      • All children followed through the study databases until age 2
  • Method “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families”
    • Five outcomes evaluated
      • CPS referrals
      • Referral for neglect
      • Referral for abuse
      • Referral for substantiated neglect
      • Referral for substantiated abuse
    • Number of referrals compared to non-enrolled children
  • Results “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families”
    • Physical abuse referrals among enrolled children decreased from 73 to 42 per 1000 child years of follow-up
    • All of this decrease occurred among children who received 20 or more visits
    • Enrolled children had modest decrease in the proportion with substantiated neglect but no difference in the proportion with neglect referral or physical abuse referral or substantiation
  • Discussion “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families”
    • Little evidence that the program had measurable impact on child maltreatment outcomes
    • Similar decreases were seen in unenrolled children
    • Greater number of home visitation were not correlated with fewer abuse outcomes
    • Study was not randomized
    • Willingness of people to refer children to CPS may be influenced by other characteristics other than occurrence of actual abuse
  • Questions
    • Why were these studies conducted?
    • What purpose do they serve in dealing with the issue of child maltreatment?
    • Both of these studies share a common goal, what is it?