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  • Child Maltreatment Among Immigrant Chinese Families: Characteristics and Patterns of Placement Researchers: Siyon Rhee, Janet Chang, Dale Weaver and Danette Wong Reviewed By: Dominique Goldring Jaime Watkins Scott Wildesen Psyc 308 – October, 28 2008
  • Introduction
    • One-fourth of the nation’s foreign-born residents in the US today are Asian.
        • More than 80% of Chinese people who currently live in the US are
        • foreign-born or have at least one parent who is foreign-born.
    • Chinese immigrants, like people of other ethnicities, go through psychosocial
    • problems, such as domestic violence, family breakup, parent-child conflict,
    • substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, unemployment, and discrimination,
    • contrary to misconceptions.
    • There is a mistaken belief that Chinese Americans don’t need as much
    • governmental assistance, social services and mental health care as other
    • ethnicities in the US population.
        • Abuse in Asian Americans is underrepresented in literature.
        • CPS agencies do not have adequate post investigation placement
        • decisions for immigrant Asian American child abuse victims.
    • The objective of this study was to examine types of child abuse in Chinese
    • immigrants and limited-English-speaking perpetrators in Los Angeles, and
    • behavioral characteristics of typical victims.
  • Introduction
    • The study wanted to identify some of the variables CPS takes into
    • consideration for post investigation placement decisions.
    • Lastly, it aimed to present effective child welfare practices for Chinese
    • immigrant child abuse victims and their families.
    • In a previous study by Gong (1985), showed that white Americans rated
    • vignettes depicting child physical and verbal abuse more severely than did
    • Asian Americans. Asian Americans were more focused on the child sexual
    • abuse vignettes.
    • Asian Americans also picked the least intrusive measures for intervention.
        • This may be because of the collectivistic attitudes of the Chinese
        • culture.
    • Chinese Americans have different standards and definitions of child
    • maltreatment, so the newer they are to America, the less they know
    • about American standards for child maltreatment- acculturation.
        • Asian cultures are generally more accepting of corporal
        • punishment.
    • Courts should look more at cultural practices and the context of the abuse
    • when studying immigrant families.
  • Methods Sampling:
    • 221 Chinese cases files maintained by the Asian Pacific unit
    • of the Los Angeles County Department Of Children and Family
    • Services.
    • Monolingual or Limited-English-speaking Chinese families
    • Reported for Abuse from July through September 2001
    • Immigrant families living in Los Angeles County
  • Methods Instrumentation:
    • Reviewing of Case files to determine information available in the records
    • Records included referral source, emergency response status disposition
    • of the case and placement decisions.
    • A data extract form was created and consisted of four sections measuring
    • victims’ sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, perpetrator
    • characteristics, family characteristics, and CPS case activities and decisions.
    • Victim Characteristics – child’s gender, age, language preference,
    • behavioral problems, type of abuse, severity and duration
    • Perpetrator Characteristics – age, gender, marital status,
    • relationship to victim, language preference, education, occupation,
    • length of residence in US, and living arrangement
    • Family Characteristics – special circumstances under which the abuse
    • occurred and presence of family problems such as domestic
    • violence and divorce.
  • Methods Data Analysis:
    • Data extracted from the case files were analyzed by using
    • descriptive statistics
    • Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds of children
    • being kept in or removed from the home on selected independent variables
  • Results
  • Results
  • Results
  • Results
  • Discussion
    • First study of its type
    • Study came to same results as Ima and Hohm
    • Overall results similar to the study done by Change and his colleagues
    • In the study 18.9% of cases were of physical abuse and 27.4% neglect
    • and 11 cases were sexual abuse
    • U.S. census shows Asian Americans are the second largest ethnic group
    • in California and also fastest growing minority in America
    • High Physical Abuse rates reflect
        • Cultural beliefs
        • Family roles
        • Childs expectations
        • Gender roles
  • Discussion
    • Tang found 3 main types of obedience factors for role expectations
        • Daughter’s obedience of father
        • Wife’s obedience of husband
        • Widows obedience of eldest son
    • Only 3.9% sexual abuse cases reported compared to 6.9%
    • for non-Asian families
    • Some possibilities may be
          • Taboos
          • No sexual interaction until marriage
          • Close relations
    • Mothers more likely to use physical abuse
    • Fathers more likely to use emotional abuse
        • Reasoning
          • Mother primary care taker
          • Solve problems within
          • The shame of loss face
    • Residence length
        • 11.5 yrs. Was the average number of years the perpetrator
        • lived in the U.S.
        • Results show time does have an effect
        • Longer families live in the U.S. the less severe the abuse
  • Discussion
    • Asian Pacific Research and Development Council found
          • 15.8% below poverty level
          • 35.8% of total population held a professional level job
          • 15.9% of them were perpetrators
    • Perpetrators had fewer years of education than their counterparts
          • 74% overall has high school degree
          • 55.7% had 12 or more years of schooling
          • 10.5% overall speak English only
          • 32.2% speak English well
          • 7.2% or perpetrators spoke English as first language
  • Discussion
    • Victims
        • 220 sustained victims in study
            • 162 in home placement
            • 58 out of home placement
    • Child Welfare systems reported in 2006
        • 35.5% in home placement
        • 64.5% out of home (relative or foster care)
    • Poverty and Income
        • Influences severity and durations of abuse
        • Study shows not true
        • Noticed family income wasn’t even recorded in cases
  • Discussion
    • Needs for continuing the experiment
        • Establish clear policies of abuse
        • International collaboration
        • Help from the community
        • More evidence
    • Ways of solve these problems
        • Outreach programs
        • Inform immigrant families of situation
        • Better teaching of methods to attain from abuse
        • Better family systems
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