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Improving access to mobile technologies using tactile feedback

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  • 1. Improving access to mobiletechnologies using tactile feedback Huimin Qian Information Systems Department UMBC October 3rd, 2012
  • 2. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Interacting with mobile devicesSummary Desktop computers Interacting with desktop computers Mobile devices In mobile contexts 2
  • 3. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Interacting with mobile devicesSummary Desktop computers Interacting with desktop computers Mobile devices In mobile contexts 3
  • 4. [Shaun, 2011]MotivationsProposed solution Inaccessible forProjects blind usersSummary 4
  • 5. [Sears et al., 2003; Brown et al., 2005; Wobbrock, 2006]MotivationsProposed solution Inaccessible forProjects sighted users in a number of situationsSummary Walking Driving In a class In social situations 5
  • 6. [Sears et al., 2003; Brown et al., 2005; Wobbrock, 2006]MotivationsProposed solution Inaccessible forProjects sighted users in a number of situationsSummary “Situationally-induced impairments and disabilities” Walking Driving SIID [Sears & Young, 2003] In a class In social situations 6
  • 7. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects 5 communication channelsSummary • Sight Restricted • Smell Impractical • Taste • Hearing • Touch 7
  • 8. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects 5 communication channelsSummary • Sight Restricted • Smell Impractical • Taste In loud & noisy environment • Hearing In situations like those, users’ hearing capability is restricted. • Touch In social situations 8
  • 9. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Proposed solutionSummary • Develop touch-based interaction techniques, using vibrations/tactile icons (tactons) to convey peripheral messages via mobile devices in the absence of vision and audio. • Note: • Vibrations, Tactile icons, Tactons, Haptic cues 9
  • 10. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Advantages of proposed solutionSummary  Reduces visual demands associated with using mobile applications  Avoids disruption on users’ main tasks  Enables eyes-free and hands-free interactions  Provides a private communication channel 10
  • 11. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Design, evaluate & use tactile iconsSummary • [Design] Phase 1: Develop tactile icons for use with mobile devices • [Evaluation] Phase 2: Examine the effectiveness of tactile icons with auditory distracters • [Use] Phase 3: A haptic personal training application 11
  • 12. Phase 1: Develop tactile icons for use with mobile devicesMotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 1: Design Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • Goals:Summary – To build a low-cost & configurable tactile display system – To broaden design space of tactile icons by exploring new parameters of touch – To understand human tactile perceptual limitations 12
  • 13. Phase 1: Develop tactile icons for use with mobile devicesMotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 1: Tactile display system Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3Summary Nokia N95 Vibration actuators Arduino BT Board 13
  • 14. Phase 1: Develop tactile icons for use with mobile devicesMotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 1: Parameters of touch Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Parameters Value One Value TwoSummary Duration Long (0.8Sec.) Short (0.2Sec.) Interval Long (1Sec.) Short (0.2Sec.) Intensity Strong (255Hz) Weak (153Hz) Location Volar Wrist Dorsal Wrist 16 types of tactile icons 14
  • 15. Phase 1: Develop tactile icons for use with mobile devicesMotivationsProposed solution Phase 1: Examine parameters ofProjects touch Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • 20 participants ,within-subject studySummary – Training (10 minutes) – Trials (40 minutes) • Each type of tactile icons repeated 3 times • Participants can replay each icon as many times as they feel need to • Participants submit answer in an online form after recognizing a tactile icon – Post-study interview (10 minutes) 15
  • 16. Phase 1: Develop tactile icons for use with mobile devicesMotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 1: Results Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • The tactile icons are easy to identify:Summary – Recognition rate - > 87% – Recognition time - <14 seconds – Cognitive workload - below 3 in 1-5 Likert scale (1: extremely low workload; 5: extremely high workload)  Users can recognize 4 tactile parameters with moderately high recognition rate and medium level of cognitive workload 16
  • 17. Phase 2: Examine tactons in lab with auditory distracters [Qian, Kuber & Sears, IJHCS ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 2: Evaluation Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • Goal:Summary – To examine the effects of auditory distracters on the use of tactile icons in mobile devices 17
  • 18. Phase 2: Examine tactons in lab with auditory distracters [Qian, Kuber & Sears, IJHCS ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 2: Experiment design Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • Three types of auditory distracters:Summary 1. White noise 2. Street noise 3. Rock music • Presented via headphones and speakers • Two types of tacton pairs: – A distinct pair – A non-distinct pair • 18 participants (8F, 10M, Age 19-27) 18
  • 19. Phase 2: Examine tactons in lab with auditory distracters [Qian, Kuber & Sears, IJHCS ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 2: Results & implications Phase 1 Phase 2 • Different audio affects tactile perception Phase 3 differentlySummary – Higher recognition accuracy and less recognition time in quiet lab with no external sound presented  Tactile perceptual tests should be performed under conditions which include background audio. – Longer recognition time and higher cognitive workload in music, compared with street noise – White noise resulted in increased cognitive workload, but did not impact the tactile recognition  White noise is not an acceptable substitute for more realistic sound. 19
  • 20. Phase 2: Examine tactons in lab with auditory distracters [Qian, Kuber & Sears, IJHCS ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 2: Results & implications Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • The more distinct tacton pair can better resistSummary auditory distracters – Less recognition time to identify distinct tacton pair – Higher recognition accuracy to identify distinct tacton pair  Careful design to maximize distinctiveness of tactons is even more important for mobile devices. 20
  • 21. Phase 3: A haptic personal training application [Qian, Kuber & Sears, CHI ’10, INTERACT ‘11; Qian, Kuber, Sears & Murphy, INTCOM ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 3: Use Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • A mobile exertion application integrated withSummary tactile feedback to help senior adults monitor and adjust walking speed • Step rate detected every 4 seconds using built-in accelerometers • Two tactile/auditory icons to notify users to walk faster/slower A pedometer & a phone holder 21
  • 22. Phase 3: A haptic personal training application [Qian, Kuber & Sears, CHI ’10, INTERACT ‘11; Qian, Kuber, Sears & Murphy, INTCOM ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 3: Use Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • Goals:Summary – To assess the effectiveness of tactile icons in conveying commands in mobile applications – To examine the impact of motion on perception of tactile icons – To study the change of users’ behaviors along with the use of the mobile application 22
  • 23. Phase 3: A haptic personal training application [Qian, Kuber & Sears, CHI ’10, INTERACT ‘11; Qian, Kuber, Sears & Murphy, INTCOM ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 3: A field study Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • 3 healthy 65+ senior adults over 2-weekSummary period • Training in lab – 3 types of feedback with the same rhythm (Audio icons, Tactile icons, Audio+Tactile icons) • Data collection methods – Automated logging on the phone – Participant-maintained diaries – Interviews 23
  • 24. Phase 3: A haptic personal training application [Qian, Kuber & Sears, CHI ’10, INTERACT ‘11; Qian, Kuber, Sears & Murphy, INTCOM ’11]MotivationsProposed solutionProjects Phase 3: Results & implications Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 • Multimodal icons work better than unimodalSummary icons  In compromising environment or demanding tasks, multimodal icons should be used • Tactile icons work better than auditory icons • Users’ preferences change depending on the situational context  The design of interaction system for senior adults needs to consider the age-related declines in hearing and touch 24
  • 25. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects SummarySummary • [Design] A set of identifiable tactile parameters are identified A low-cost tactile display system is developed • [Evaluation] The impact of various auditory distracters is examined Implications for mobile interface designers are provided • [Use] A haptic personal training application is developed The use of tactile icons are evaluated in field Guidance to developers and researchers is provided 25
  • 26. MotivationRelated workProposed solution QuestionsResearch QsFinished studiesUpcoming studiesTimeline Huimin Qian Ph.D. Candidate Information Systems Department UMBC Email: huimin1@umbc.edu 26
  • 27. MotivationsProposed solutionProjects PublicationsSummary • Towards Identifying distinguishable tactons for use with mobile devices (ASSETS, 2009) • Towards Developing Perceivable Tactile Feedback for Mobile Devices. (International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 2011) • Maintaining levels of activity using a haptic personal training application. (CHI ,2010) • Maintaining and Modifying Pace Through Tactile and Multimodal Feedback (INTCOM, 2011) • A Longitudinal Pilot Study to Evaluate Non-Visual Icons in a Mobile Exertion Application. (Proceedings of INTERACT, 2011) 27