Ob modification & job design

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Ob modification & job design

  1. 1. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–1 Organizational Behavior Modification •Reinforcement theory (operant conditioning)  Behaviors that result in desirable consequences are repeated and behaviors that produce undesirable outcomes are avoided.  Reinforcement—when a consequence makes a behavior more likely to be repeated.  Extinction—when a consequence makes a response less likely to be repeated. Stimulus Response Consequence (Outcome)
  2. 2. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–2 Organizational Behavior Modification •Organizational behavior modification (OBM)  The systematic application of operant conditioning theory to manage workplace behavior.  Extends operant theory to include consideration of behavioral changes in anticipation of future stimulus- response-consequences sequences.  Recognizes social learning— learning from others’ behaviors and consequences.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–3 Organizational Behavior Modification Outcomes Stimulus Response Intrinsic Outcome (Internal) Consequences Extrinsic Outcome (External)
  4. 4. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–4 Organizational Behavior Modification (cont’d) •Implementing an OBM program  Step 1: Identify desired performance behaviors  Step 2: Determine the base rate of performance  Step 3: Identify existing contingencies  Step 4: Select an intervention strategy  Step 5: Evaluate
  5. 5. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–5 Organizational Behavior Modification (cont’d) •Effects of OBM programs (examples)  Using pay as positive reinforcement.  “Docking” pay as punishment.  Improving performance to get the boss “off your back” is negative reinforcement.  Using reinforcement schedules to speed up and motivate learning during training.  Providing physical hazard warning stimulus in factories and aircraft.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–6 Organizational Behavior Modification (cont’d) •The ethics of OBM  Are attempts to modify behaviors ethical?  What must be done to ensure that OBM is used in an ethical manner?  What is the difference between manipulating behavior and assisting employees to become better organizational members?
  7. 7. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–7 Job and Work Design •Job (work) design  The process by which tasks are combined to form a job.  The formal and informal specification of task-related activities assigned to and carried out by a worker.  The inherent nature and character of the work performed.
  8. 8. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–8 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •The craft approach  A single skilled worker designed and built products one at a time from beginning to end.
  9. 9. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–9 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •The classical approach  Work is divided into a small number of simple, repetitive, and standardized tasks.  Adam Smith’s reasons for using the classical approach:  Worker skill and dexterity improves over time.  Time savings and production gains from not changing from one activity to another.  Innovations developed by specialized workers.  Specialized equipment can be developed.  Training time and costs are reduced.
  10. 10. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–10 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •Scientific management (Taylor)  Division of labor used to:  Separate management from rank and file.  Create functional supervision within the managerial ranks.  Functionally supervise the rank and file.  Implement vertical specialization that removes planning and controlling activities from production employees.  Implement horizontal specialization that creates many low-skill-level, short-time cycle repetitive jobs.
  11. 11. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–11 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •Scientific management (cont’d)  Problems created by the division of labor approach:  Physical withdrawal—absenteeism  Psychological withdrawal—low job satisfaction  Physical resistance—work slowdowns, horseplay •The curse of the classical job design model Simplified Work Perceptions of Sameness (Monotony) Feelings of Boredom and Dissatisfaction Dysfunctional Behavior FIGURE 16–2
  12. 12. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–12 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •The transition from classical job design  Behavioral School  An approach to job design that had a “human face.” – Productivity could be attained by making the job more interesting. – Enlarged and enriched jobs are favorably associated with intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction, work attendance, and performance.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–13 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •The job enlargement approach  The process of adding breadth to a job by increasing the number and variety of activities performed by an employee (horizontal loading).
  14. 14. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–14 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •The job enrichment approach (Herzberg)  The process of adding depth to a job by adding “managerial” activities to the employee’s responsibilities (vertical loading).  Hygiene factors (pay and safe working conditions) do not motivate or create long-term satisfaction.  Motivator factors satisfy and motivate employees:  Accountability, achievement, control, feedback, personal growth and development, and work pace
  15. 15. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–15 Job Characteristics Model Core Job Characteristics Experienced Psychological States Individual Differences Personal and Work Outcomes Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Task Autonomy Job Feedback Meaningfulness of Work Responsibility for Work Outcome Knowledge of Results Employee Growth- Need Strength High Internal Work Motivation High-Quality Work Performance Low Absenteeism and Turnover FIGURE 16–3 Source: J. R. Hackman and G. R. Oldham. 1976. Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16:250–279.
  16. 16. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–16 The Relationship Between Job Complexity and Psychological Ownership Dimensions of Job Complexity: Routes to Psychological Ownership: Autonomy Task Identity Personal Control Investment of Self Psychological Ownership Intimate KnowingFeedback FIGURE 16–4
  17. 17. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–17 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •Current job design issues  Individual characteristics  Technology  Work unit design  Leader behavior
  18. 18. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–18 An Interdisciplinary Job Design Model Job Mechanistic Motivational Biological Perceptual/motor
  19. 19. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–19 Job and Work Design (cont’d) •The self-managing team approach  Establishing groups of workers who collaborate in the management and performance of their work.  Work in a self-managed group is designed to offer variety, autonomy, significance, task identity, feedback and opportunities for human interaction.
  20. 20. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western 16–20 The Leader During a Team’s Four Stages Stage 1: Start-up team L Stage 2: Transitional team Stage 3: Well-trained, experienced team Stage 4: Well-trained, mature team L L L Source: C. C. Manz and J. W. Newstrom. 1990. Self-managing teams in a paper mill: The external leadership of self-managing teams. International Human Resources Management Review, 1:52.

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