Learning 2
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  • 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r stephen p. robbins e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n
  • 2. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N SS T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O NE L E V E N T H E D I T I O N W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N SW W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Foundations of Individual Behavior Chapter 2
  • 3. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–3 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define the key biographical characteristics. 2. Identify two types of ability. 3. Shape the behavior of others. 4. Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement. 5. Clarify the role of punishment in learning. 6. Practice self-management LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
  • 4. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–4 Biographical CharacteristicsBiographical Characteristics Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, and marital status—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
  • 5. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–5 Ability, Intellect, and IntelligenceAbility, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
  • 6. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–6 • Number aptitude • Verbal comprehension • Perceptual speed • Inductive reasoning • Deductive reasoning • Spatial visualization • Memory • Number aptitude • Verbal comprehension • Perceptual speed • Inductive reasoning • Deductive reasoning • Spatial visualization • Memory Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Dimensions of Intellectual Ability E X H I B I T 2–1 E X H I B I T 2–1
  • 7. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–7 Physical AbilitiesPhysical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  • 8. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–8 Other Factors 7. Body coordination 8. Balance 9. Stamina Other Factors 7. Body coordination 8. Balance 9. Stamina Nine Physical AbilitiesNine Physical Abilities Strength Factors 1. Dynamic strength 2. Trunk strength 3. Static strength 4. Explosive strength Strength Factors 1. Dynamic strength 2. Trunk strength 3. Static strength 4. Explosive strength Flexibility Factors 5. Extent flexibility 6. Dynamic flexibility Flexibility Factors 5. Extent flexibility 6. Dynamic flexibility E X H I B I T 2–2 E X H I B I T 2–2 Source: Adapted from HRMagazine published by the Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.
  • 9. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–9 Ability-Job Fit The Ability-Job FitThe Ability-Job Fit Employee’sEmployee’s AbilitiesAbilities Job’s AbilityJob’s Ability RequirementsRequirements
  • 10. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–10 LearningLearning Learning • Involves change • Is relatively permanent • Is acquired through experience Learning • Involves change • Is relatively permanent • Is acquired through experience Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  • 11. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–11 Theories of LearningTheories of Learning Key Concepts • Unconditioned stimulus • Unconditioned response • Conditioned stimulus • Conditioned response Key Concepts • Unconditioned stimulus • Unconditioned response • Conditioned stimulus • Conditioned response Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
  • 12. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–13 Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts • Reflexive (unlearned) behavior • Conditioned (learned) behavior • Reinforcement Key Concepts • Reflexive (unlearned) behavior • Conditioned (learned) behavior • Reinforcement Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
  • 13. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–14 Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts • Attentional processes • Retention processes • Motor reproduction processes • Reinforcement processes Key Concepts • Attentional processes • Retention processes • Motor reproduction processes • Reinforcement processes Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience.
  • 14. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–15 Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts • Reinforcement is required to change behavior. • Some rewards are more effective than others. • The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Key Concepts • Reinforcement is required to change behavior. • Some rewards are more effective than others. • The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
  • 15. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–16 Types of ReinforcementTypes of Reinforcement  Positive reinforcement – Providing a reward for a desired behavior.  Negative reinforcement – Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.  Punishment – Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior.  Extinction – Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.
  • 16. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–17 Schedules of ReinforcementSchedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
  • 17. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–18 Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
  • 18. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–19 Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-ratio E X H I B I T 2–4 E X H I B I T 2–4
  • 19. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–20 Intermittent Schedules of ReinforcementIntermittent Schedules of Reinforcement E X H I B I T 2–5 E X H I B I T 2–5
  • 20. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–21 Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) E X H I B I T 2–5 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 2–5 (cont’d)
  • 21. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–22 Behavior ModificationBehavior Modification Five Step Problem-Solving Model 1. Identify critical behaviors 2. Develop baseline data 3. Identify behavioral consequences 4. Develop and apply intervention 5. Evaluate performance improvement Five Step Problem-Solving Model 1. Identify critical behaviors 2. Develop baseline data 3. Identify behavioral consequences 4. Develop and apply intervention 5. Evaluate performance improvement OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
  • 22. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 2–23 OB MOD Organizational ApplicationsOB MOD Organizational Applications  Well Pay versus Sick Pay – Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence.  Employee Discipline – The use of punishment can be counter-productive.  Developing Training Programs – OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.  Self-management – Reduces the need for external management control.