-this wear F/N language may be introduced and start of immersion
Everybody has special talents, interests and passions that they bring to the profession. As a teacher you need to recognize this in your class. There’s more than one right way!
Based on theory
Most theorists agree to these Not all theorists study all but have a specialiaty
Characteristics of most theories
Think about these as we look at theories
Talk about additive teaching
Hand out paper and placemat activity
After sharing create a group definition. What might be missing in our work here? May need to do some further research – i.e. find out what the experts say, we may not have enough knowledge to create our own definition.
The prevailing view is that critical thinking are activities that students do – that by interpreting, analyzing or evaluating they are, by definition, “doing’ critical thinking. Some people believe that critical thinking should be thought more of as a quality or characteristic that may, or may not, be present in virtually any task students undertake. The author of one article I read believes that critical thinking refers to the thinking through of any ‘problematic’ situation where the thinker seeks to make a judgment about whether it would be sensible or reasonable to believe or do.
Form new groups and have each group look at one of these areas. Pose the questions.
Discuss what students noticed or found in the definitions, but also talk about the process that we used. They were immersed in critical thinking when they explored the definition, i.e. Brought in background experiences, listened to others, made reasoned judgements with the information they had, collaborated with another group of people, thought about the criteria they were using to develop a group consensus. We also linked our work to our curriculum – I just didn’t teach what I thought was good – it was connected to the curriculum documents (which is the ‘what’ of what we have to teach). I also raised some new ideas and left you with ideas to think about, hopefully your curiosity is awakened, and you are ready to look more closely at the whole of idea of critical awareness and thinking.
Real students and real teachers in Ontario classrooms. Here is a student-teacher conference, note how the student did not just have a list of questions to fill out on a sheet, listen to the probing questions the teacher is asking, and listen to the type of responses the student is making. Do opportunities exist in this classroom for critical thinking, critical literacy, higher-order thinking and critical awareness?
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2008/05/16/f-faqs-residential-schools.html From stolen children
Reinforce that on EED450 site … blog space
(a French author who became famous for her published journals, which span more than 60 years, beginning when she was 11 years old and ending shortly before her death) said,
Lots of ways at looking at the types of questions that are generated in the classroom – this is just one way of looking at 3 different types of questions.
When asking questions – you need to think about the reason behind the questions – what is the purpose of the task? When would you want to ask a factual question, personal preference, or a critical inquiry question? Discussion.
Thanks for joining us – lots of new ideas and beginnings to reflect on.
PURPOSE OF PROF195 • reflect and improve • based on The Foundations of Professional Practice • Commitment to students and student learning • Professional knowledge • Teaching practice • Leadership and community • On-going professional learning
Let’s Make aDifference…What are yourinterests, talentsand passions?
THAT’S ME! THAT’S YOU!• Thisis a teaching strategy that is inclusive and helps to create a sense of community and belonging•Iwill read a statement to the whole group and if it is true for you, stand up and say (with great enthusiasm!), “That’s me!”
THAT’S ME!1. I have a dog.2. I have a cat.3. I went away on a vacation this summer.4. I love coffee in the morning.5. I love tea in the morning.
THAT’S ME!6. I am travelling to Manitoulin.7. I know somebody when I camein this weekend.8. I am looking forward tovisiting my host school.9. I have a talent, interest orpassion that I can bring to mynew school.
Think about one of yourfavourite teachers. Whatstrengths and talents did thatperson have that made himor her memorable?
Pair up with anelbow partner.Share yourthoughts.
MILLING TO MUSIC1. When the music starts to play you begin to mill to the music (walk around randomly – dancing is always great too!).2. When the music stops, find a partner, introduce yourself, share with them what city you live in, and your favourite colour.3. Share with your partner your answer to the prompt question and listen attentively to their response.
MILLING TO MUSIC (CONT’D)4. When the music starts again, thank your partner and then mill to the music.5. When the music stops again, find a new partner and repeat the steps from above.
MILLING TO MUSICShare with yourpartner: Something that struck you about the video, “Animal School”
How did the videosupport yourthinking about aperson’s strengths?
What can you do as ateacher candidate tobring out a child’sstrength in theclassroom?
LET’S SHARE!What is a strategy that someone shared with you and that may beused in a classroom or in a school?
What strengths doyou have that youbring to your newrole as teachercandidate?
To excel in your chosen field and to findlasting satisfaction in doing so, you willneed to understand your unique patterns.You will need to become an expert atfinding and describing and applying andpracticing and refining your strengths. Marcus Buckingham & Donald Clifton
Learning Classroom Dignity Inclusive Teaching Critical Presence Management Community Children Include these words in a short statement that explains their relationship to each other. ( 25 words or less) in groups write on chart paper & post Walkabout and look for commonalities anddifferences
DOMAINS OFDEVELOPMENT• Activate – Why Child Development?• Acquire – Theories of Development• Acquire – Domains of Development – What are we looking for?• Acquire/Apply - Developmental Profiles• Assess – Focus on student vs. teacher
Why theory and professional practice? Lesson Cla ss ro o Planning m Man Policy agem ent Curriculum Design Development
What is a theory ?•an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes,explains, and predicts behaviour•provide organizing frameworks for our observations ofchildren – they guide and give meaning to what we see• once verified by research, often serve as a sound basisfor practical action.• a theory’s continued existence depends on scientificverification and must be tested using a fair set ofresearch procedures agreed on by the scientificcommunity• many theories helps advance knowledge, sinceresearchers continually try to support , contradict, andintegrate different points of view
Periods of DevelopmentResearchers usually segment child development into fiveperiods, since each brings with it new capacities and socialexpectations that serve as important transitions in majortheories.1.The prenatal period from conception to birth.2.Infancy and toddlerhood ranges from birth to 2 years.3.Early childhood includes the time from 2 to 6 years.4.Middle childhood extends from 6 to 11 years.5.Adolescence encompasses the time from 11 to 20 years.
Although there are many theories, almostall take a stand on three basic issuesabout child development:1.Continuousor discontinuousdevelopment?2.One course of development or many?3.Nature or nurture as more important?
Continuous or discontinuous development?•babies and preschoolers may respond to the world inmuch the same way as adults, in which case thedevelopment is continuous – a process of gradually addingmore of the same types of skill which were there to beginwith.• babies and preschoolers may have unique ways ofthinking, feeling, and behaviour that must be understoodon their own terms – ones quite different from those ofadults – in which case, development is a discontinuousprocess in which new ways of understanding andresponding to the world emerge at specific times.•discontinuous perspective sees development as takingplace in stages
One course of development or many?•stage theorists assume that childreneverywhere follow the same sequence ofdevelopment• the field of child development is becomingincreasingly aware that children grow up indistinct contexts; they experience uniquecombinations of genetic and environmentalcircumstances.
Nature or Nurture?Are genetic or environmental factors more important?•Nature – inborn biological givens, the hereditary informationwe receive from our parents at the moment of conception thatsignals the body to grow and affects all our characteristics andskills.•Nurture – the complex forces of the physical and social worldthat children encounter in their homes, neighbourhoods, schools,and communities.•Alltheories grant at least some role to both nature and nurture– they vary in the emphasis placed on each. If theorists emphasize stability, they believe thatchildren who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so atlater stages, they are stressing heredity. If theorists regard environment as crucial, they generallypoint to early experiences as establishing a lifelong pattern ofbehaviour.
Early TheoriesJohn Locke (British philosopher, 17th century)• child as a tabula rasa, Latin translation means“blank slate”•their characters could be shaped by all kinds ofexperiences while growing up•his theory led to a change from harshness towardchildren to kindness and compassion• development as continuous, supports nurture• saw children as passive, they did little to shapetheir own destiny
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (18th century)• children as noble savages•naturally endowed with a sense of right andwrong and with an innate plan for orderly,healthy growth• child centred theory in which adults should bereceptive to the child’s needs at each of the fourstages of development: infancy, childhood, latechildhood, and adolescence• two vital concepts: the concept of stage and theconcept of maturation, which refers to agenetically determined, naturally unfoldingcourse of growth
Charles Darwin ( British naturalist,19thcentury)• natural selection and survival of the fittest• emphasis on the adaptive value of physicalcharacteristics and behaviour eventually foundit way into twentieth-century theories•led to many scientists in the late 19th andearly 20th centuries starting to take notice ofchild development• often own children or friend studied
DOMAINS OF DEVELOPMENT Physical Cognitivechanges in body size, proportions development of a wide variety of thought processes and intellectual abilitiesfunctioning of various body systems including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativitybrain development the uniquely human capacity to represent the world through languageperceptual and motor capacitiesphysical health
Social Development•development of emotional communication, self-understanding,ability to manage one’s feelings• knowledge about other people• interpersonal skills, friendships, intimaterelationships• moral reasoning and behaviour
Developmental Profiles•the age specifications are only approximatemarkers derived from averages or norms•they are midpoints not intended to representany one child•age expectations are summary skills thatvary from child to child in form and time ofacquisition• the essential question is not chronologicalage, but whether the child is moving forwardstep-by-step in each are of development
Roundtable SynthesisFour pairs come together to form a group of 8.1.Findthe developmental profiles posted on theinteract/resources2.Withyour learning partner read the scenario andanswer the first question, including a) and b). Put youranswer on the chart paper.3.Once all have finished the question move the chartpaper to the next pair at your table.4.When your receive a new chart paper read the scenario,read the question and answer already completed, andthen answer the next question. Put your answer on thechart paper.5.Continuepassing the paper until all questions havebeen answered.
Once all of the questions on each chartpaper are answered.The group that started with the 3 year oldreads the scenario to the group, thequestions and the replies.•ask for clarification•discuss implications•Continue through all scenario’s followingthe same format.
How does learning changewhen the emphasis is more on what the students are doing than what the teacher is doing?
• Creating the Dynamic Classroom; AHandbook for Teachers, Schwartz &Pollishuke• Developmental Profiles, Allen & Marotz• Yardsticks, Wood
With-it-ness•isthe ability to identify and quickly act onpotential behavioural problems.• react immediately• forecast problems• scanning the class moving aroundOverlapping•is the ability to deal with two matters at once,one off task, one on task without disruption toclass work.
• Emotional Objectivity• the ability to interact with students in a businesslike, matter-of-fact manner even though you might be experiencing strong emotions• important when carrying out consequences for inappropriate behaviour
Low - Key Responses•How would you define the concept of Low-Key Responsesand what are their common attributes? “Act don’t Talk” Attributes (defining characteristics): 1.They involve ‘non” or “minimal verbal” responses. 2.They do not stop the flow of the lesson – quick/quiet. 3.They do not invite escalation – low emotional content.
Proximity: Think about how you react when you aredriving and you see a police car in the rear viewmirror • be aware of how you move towards students • be aware of personal space – getting closer to power or revenge could escalate behaviourTouch: A gentle reminder that someone is awareand cares.• quick touch that most students would not see• forearm or shoulder• leaving hand there or touching head can be invadingspace• some cultures see touching head as unacceptable• avoid eye contact
The Look: A quiet way to communicate whether ornot the student’s behaviour is acceptable• use in scanning• communicate inappropriate behaviour• distinguish between the look, the stare, and the glareUsing the Student’s Name:• reminds students they are not anonymous• appreciate the power of intonation, syllable emphasis,and inflection as you say a name• Harry! Harold!
The Gesture• hand or facial gesture communicates the expected behaviour• ‘finger to mouth’, ‘shake of head’, “Harry’ followed by point to seat• integrate with other low level responses (moving towards, shaking head, smiling thank you)The Pause: gives a message but also gives you timeto think about how to respond• signal then pause• name then pause• often used in conjunction with other low level responses
Ignoring: a chance to think while also sending amessage• make sure facial expression does not give away youragitationDeal with the Problem and not the student: saysyou are still accepted, it is your behaviour that iswrong• link together low level responses• give them only the information they require to stop“John you may not care about your work but some of usdo so please stop tapping your pencil and show us somerespect.”“John, pencil, thank you.”
Signal to Begin: to focus, re-focus, attransitions1. signal2. pause – scanning to see that everyone is ready3. if necessary use a low level response tostudents who are inappropriate4.reinforce at end with “thank you.”IT DOESN’T MATTER WHAT THE SIGNALIS ‘SAY WHAT YOU MEAN AND MEANWHAT YOU SAY’HINT: Move towards the students not away
CALL-OUTS• Put up your hand• Don’t put up your hand, I’ll ask someone to respond• Invite call-outs (e.g. whole class brainstorming)• Choral response• Tell your neighbour
“ If a child lives withapproval, he/she learns tolive with himself/herself.” Dorothy Law Nolte
BUMP 2 – SQUARING OFF“I ASKED YOU ONCE AND YOU KNOW IKNOW…SO STOP.”1. You pause ( and that has you stop talking)2. You turn towards the student ( square off)3. You give a minimal verbal request to stop4. You finish with a “Thank you” Caution: * don’t look too long ( what are you looking at? power) * intensity – ‘light pink or dark red’ * watch how close you get
APPLYING BUMPS 1 & 2• You are taking responsibility for letting students know they are disruptive• Allow you to respond with minimal disruption to classContinues the teacher gives the responsibility back to the students bump 3 & 4
BUMP 3 AND 4 CHOICES AND IMPLIEDCHOICES“SAY WHAT YOU MEAN AND MEAN WHAT YOU SAY…BUT SOMEWHERE INTHE DISCUSSION ALLOW THEM TO MAKE A DECISION.”• The choice is related to the misbehaviour.• The choice is not seen as a punishment.• The consequence is given as immediately as possible.• The choice is not an ultimatum.• The choice is done in a positive or neutral tone.• You can follow through on the choice
Bump 4 - Implied Choice• follow through on the choice you gave earlier• the choice given to one applies to all ( if they heard it)“ You can work together as long as you stay ontask or I will move you.”• implied that I will move other students misbehavingin same manner.• ripple effect – you say what you mean and meanwhat you say• always provide a choice that you can follow throughon.• not seen as punishing and maintains dignity ofstudent.
4. Language of attribution – this is where you throw the ball back into the student’s court • “I don’t have a problem you do!” • “ That may be true but the problem centres around your refusal to do the activity. What’s next? Where do we go from here? What happens now?”5. Provide a choice Eating properly, enough sleep, home life – when life is chaotic they turn to power!
BUMP 6 –THE INFORMAL AGREEMENT,INFORMAL LOGICAL CONTRACTSRationale for the Informal Chat:1.It shifts the responsibility for the misbehaviour to thestudent.2.Allowsthe teacher to deal with the persistentproblems by the use of a proactive response in theclassroom or outside the classroom.3.Minimizes the time spent dealing with misbehaviourduring instructional time.4.Allowsthe student and teacher to work together todevelop a positive plan of action in which they bothhave a responsibility regarding its implementation.
5.Allows the student and teacher to re- establish a more positive relationship. • Be calm • Greet student and set atmosphere • Define problem – be specific (calling out • Generate alternatives • Agree on alternatives to try and when to begin • Review what has been agreed upon • End conference with a comment or gesture that communicates a positive feeling tone.
BUMP 7,8 & 9 FORMAL CONTRACTS, IN-SCHOOL SUSPENSION, OUT OF SCHOOL SUSPENSION• The administrator is more directive – they implement the consequence• The teacher is less directive – initiates the contract, monitors the behaviour and need for consequences• A counselor or other trained professional often involved depending on seriousness and needs• The parents help design and implement the plan, they support and carry out the consequences• The tone is one of increased seriousness blended with caring• The student is not as involved; second chances are not available and the consequences will occur
VIDEO GUIDE Teacher Student Relationships• interpersonal vs. intrapersonal• dominance and cooperation• engaging students by encouraging them tothink• use of humour• wait time• teacher is confident in position of authority• kindness and respect• common sense• respect yourself and the students
Critical Thinking:Exploring definitions,perspectives, and questions
WHAT IS ‘CRITICAL THINKING’? Divide your chart paper into the same number of sections as people in your group, plus one more section (i.e. In this sample there would be 4 people in the group) In your section of the placemat jot down your response - What is ‘critical thinking’? When everyone in the group is finished, share your ideas around the table and collectively agree on 3-5 ideas. Record those ideas in the middle of the chart.
COLLABORATE• Join with another group and discuss your ideas• Circle or highlight any shared comments• Discuss ideas that differed – do you want to add any of the other group’s ideas to your placemat?• Share as a whole group
CRITICAL THINKING IS..(BASED ON MINISTRY OF EDUCATION)• A complex activity• Concerned with judging or assessing what is reasonable or sensible• Focuses on the quality of reasoning• Depends on the possession of relevant knowledge• Can be done in endless contexts and is required whenever the situation is problematic
EXPLORING... Ideas to think about...• Critical Literacy... • What surprised you in the definition? • Are there some key ideas• Creative thinking... that connected with you? • What similarities are• Higher-order thinking... there in the definitions and with our understanding of• Critical awareness... critical thinking?
CIRCLE OF VIEWPOINTSA ROUTINE FOR EXPLORING DIVERSEPERSPECTIVES(ADAPTED FROM HARVARD PROJECT ZERO)• I am thinking of ... the image... From the point of view of ...• Write a sentence staring with I think ... That describes the image from that perspective.• A question I have from this perspective is ...
MAKING YOUR THINKING VISIBLEACTIVITY.Obvious points of What otherview(try to find viewpoints can youdifferent find?perspectives)What are the obvious What are the deeperquestions that the questions/implicationsimage raises? that the image raises? What ‘new’ questions did the Group pose? What did we learn from the process? What does this mean for me as a teacher?
“We don’t see things as they are, we see things as we are.” ~Anais Nin
QUESTIONS:• Factual recall:• Personal preference:• Critical inquiry:
QUESTIONS:• How many calories are there in a litre ofice cream?• What is your favourite flavour of icecream?• Should ice cream be part of a family’sdiet?
Factual Recall: Personal preference: Critical inquiry:• have a single answer • often evoke an • promote decision in or limited range of emotional response, making and problem responses but are often not solving through grounded in criteria critical thinking• useful to asses • there are no wrong • often open-ended, student’s answers although there is a comprehension of limited number of key facts and reasonable responses processes • tend to build on human curiosity and require investigation
GROUP DISCUSSION•Look at the questions that are in the envelope•Sort the questions into the three categories•Discuss when you might use questions like thesein your classroom
WHOLE BRAIN TEACHING – CHRIS BIFFLE HISTORY• AHA!, Hmmm!, Need more!• Why do they call it Whole Brain?• Grade 1 classroom• Grade 6 classroom
EMPATHETIC, NONEVALUATIVE LISTENING1.Students learn their feelings are acceptable, which reducesthe tension and anxiety associated with having to hide theirtrue emotions.2.When thoughts and feelings can be spoken openly and arereceived nonjudgmentally, students are much less likely toexpress themselves through unproductive behaviours. (actingout is often indirect method of dealing with feelings thatcannot be expressed openly and directly)3.When adults listen nonevaluatively, they provide studentswith an opportunity to examine and clarify feelings that areoften confusing and frightening. (enables understanding andthe considering of effective approaches for coping)
DO TEACHERS HAVE THE SAMEEXPECTATIONS FOR ALLSTUDENTS?• Results from classroom interaction studies indicate teachers generally respond more favourably to students they perceive as high achievers. High achievers receive more response opportunities; are given more time to answer questions; receive more positive feedback such as smiles, nods, and winks; and are less likely to be ignored.• Teachers expect less acceptable behaviour and lower academic performance from minority students.
GUIDELINES FOR AVOIDING THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF TEACHER EXPECTATIONS• Use information from tests, cumulative folders, and other faculty very carefully• be critical about the reports you hear from other teachers, especially “horror stories” told in the staff room• Be flexible in your use of grouping strategies• use a variety of groups• differentiated & mixed ability• Make sure all students are challenged• avoid saying, “This is easy I know you can do it.”• be positive about all attempts• Be especially careful about you respond to low-achieving students during class discussions• give them prompts, clues and time to answer• call low achievers as often as high achievers
• Use materials that show a wide range of ethnic groups• check class resources and library• Be fair in evaluation and disciplinary procedures• make sure equal consequences for all• try to grade student work without knowing the identity of the student• teacher moderate• Communicate to all students that you believe they can learn- and mean it.• return student work with specific descriptive feedback• wait, probe, and help them think through an answer• Involve all students in learning tasks and in privileges• use a system for calling on students• keep track of who got to do what job• Monitor your nonverbal behaviour• Do you lean away or stand further apart from some students? Do all students get smiles?• Does your tone of voice vary with different students?
TOKEN REINFORCERSResearch says...•part of school life in the form of grades, points earned of tests,or promises of rewards if students behave appropriately•supports the benefits of focusing on positive behaviourwhenever possible•initially choose social and activity reinforcers that are a normalpart of the school day and available to all students•consequences in the form of curtailments of activities should beused only after natural reinforcers have proven ineffective inhelping students change a behaviour
• response lost ( taking away points or rewards) can evoke negative emotions and behaviours – should not be used unless simpler interventions fail• curtailment of activity is placed before tangible reinforcers because restricting behaviour ( going to problem solving club) is more logical than receiving a tangible reward for completing a task• the use of tangible rewards suggests the desired behaviour is not valuable enough to warrant being displayed without a material payoff this has powerful negative consequences for long-term improvement of student behaviour Jones, V. (2011) Practical Classroom Management, Pearson
Behaviour Reinforcement HierarchyLeast Tangible Reinforcementdesirable Social, token, and activity response cost Curtailment of activity Social, token, and activity reinforcement Activity reinforcement Social reinforcementMost desirable Vern Jones, 2011
TEACHING Motivate and focus Set expectations Teach / model A&S: archetypes and stereotypes Foundations: citizenship, scholarship, work Hybridity / adaptability / child of the world: shifting- adapt/modify Many foundational educators … Confucius, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Dewey, Rousseau, Bloom
GOALS OF EDUCATION• Academic knowledge• Citizen• Self-regulation / self-actualization• Careers / jobs
KNOWLEDGE• Facilitateand guide • Received • Discovered (you can own)• Seven grandfathers’ teachings: wisdom, love, respect, bravery, honesty, humility, truth
BEST PRACTICES FOR TEACHING• The classroom is well organized, visibly inviting, and stimulating.• Student work is displayed and adheres to district standards unless the work is identified as a "work in progress."• The lesson content reflects a focus upon the standards, concepts, and essential skills established in the Curriculum Framework.• The instructional process taps and builds upon the students prior experience, knowledge and learning.• The teacher intentionally makes connections between the content and students lives.• The teacher displays high academic and behavioral expectations for every student in the classroom.• The teacher communicates to all students their progress.• The students are fully attentive to and engaged in the lesson.• All students demonstrate an understanding and awareness of the classroom expectations.• Students remain focused during the transition between activities.• Students use time, space, and materials efficiently.• The teacher uses the full instruction time available.• The teacher paces the content appropriately.• All students experience fairness and equity.• Students demonstrate a respectful inquisitiveness toward other cultures and customs.• Students interact with a variety of culturally diverse resources.
BEST PRACTICES FOR TEACHING• Students communicate, demonstrate, and/or collaborate with teachers, peers and/or community about the learning that has occurred.• The teacher asks higher order thinking questions and allows appropriate "wait time" after the question is posed.• The teacher asks questions that cause students to synthesize, analyze, and evaluate information.• The teacher differentiates instruction to meet varied student needs.• Students participate in lessons that address their learning styles.• Students work collaboratively and cooperatively to solve problems, answer questions, and to research problems.• Students demonstrate an understanding of how the content connects to their individual experiences.• Students have time to reflect and share their prior experience.• Students have an opportunity to assist in planning the learning experience in terms of materials, resources and assessment.• The teacher re-teaches when necessary.• Student assessment is on going, and varied, and documents the learning and the level(s) of mastery.• Students critically evaluate their work and the work of their peers.• The teacher has tangible documentation of all students learning.• The teachers grades are an accurate reflection of the students academic performance measured against academic expectations and standards.• Writing is frequently incorporated into the lesson across the disciplines.
PROJECT-BASED LEARNING• The project is guided by the questions students ask about a particular topic.• The topic involves a real phenomenon that students can investigate directly.• Students make choices about the activities they will engage in to answer questions.• Work on the project happens over an extended period of time.• Curriculum objectives are met in an integrated way.
P-B L PHASE 1: CHOOSING TOPIC• The topic is chosen from curriculum content.• Topics are relevant to students everyday experiences so that they can raise valid questions.• A topic allows for basic numeracy and literacy skills and for the integration of several subject areas.• The topic allows students to practice previously acquired skills.• It may take several discussion periods to choose and refine a topic.• A web or some other visual representation can be used throughout the investigation for debriefing discussions.• This is the time when students begin deciding what aspects of the topic they will investigate
P-B L PHASE 2: INVESTIGATION • Students engage in activities which allow them to: • explore • collect data • draw from observations • construct models • observe and record findings • predict • discuss • share progress • dramatize • interview and survey
P-B L PHASE 3: CULMINATING &DEBRIEFING • Students are involved in preparing and presenting the results of their investigations. • There presentations may include: • displays • talks • dramatic presentations • guided tours of constructions • Students share their knowledge with peers, family, the school and/or the community.
P-B L: ASSESSMENTTeachers who are using Project-BasedLearning experience: • more multidimensional assessment • less paper and pencil testing • more performance-based assessment • less knowledge-based assessmentTips: • Design rubrics that include specific performance details. • Reflect the importance of the learning that led up to the final project as well as the final presentation. • Emphasize the value of products that dont work as well as completed workable products. If students can explain why something didnt work and how to fix it, real learning has occurred.
DECOLONIZATION• Decolonize your own mind and teaching practice / pedagogy• Question the legitimacy of colonization• Think about ways to resist and challenge colonial institutions and ideologies• Praxis: “reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it” Paulo Freire• Work toward our own freedom to transform our lives and the world around us
HOW TO DEVELOP A LESSON PLAN• To begin, ask yourself three basic questions: • Where are your students going? • How are they going to get there? • How will you know when theyve arrived?
GOALS • Goals determine purpose, aim, and rationale for what you and your students will engage in during class time. Use this section to express the intermediate lesson goals that draw upon previous plans and activities and set the stage by preparing students for future activities and further knowledge acquisition. The goals are typically written as broad educational or unit goals adhering to provincial curriculum standards. • What are the broader objectives, aims, or goals of the unit plan/curriculum? • What are your goals for this unit? • What do you expect students to be able to do by the end of this unit?
OBJECTIVES • This section focuses on what your students will do to acquire further knowledge and skills. The objectives for the daily lesson plan are drawn from the broader aims of the unit plan but are achieved over a well defined time period. • What will students be able to do during this lesson? • Under what conditions will students performance be accomplished? • What is the degree or criterion on the basis of which satisfactory attainment of the objectives will be judged? • How will students demonstrate that they have learned and understood the objectives of the lesson?
PREREQUISITES • Prerequisites can be useful when considering the readiness state of your students. Prerequisites allow you, and other teachers replicating your lesson plan, to factor in necessary prep activities to make sure that students can meet the lesson objectives. • What must students already be able to do before this lesson? • What concepts have to be mastered in advance to accomplish the lesson objectives?
MATERIALS • This section has two functions: it helps other teachers quickly determine a) how much preparation time, resources, and management will be involved in carrying out this plan and b) what materials, books, equipment, and resources they will need to have ready. A complete list of materials, including full citations of textbooks or story books used, worksheets, and any other special considerations are most useful. • What materials will be needed? • What textbooks or story books are needed? (please include full bibliographic citations) • What needs to be prepared in advance? (typical for science classes and cooking or baking activities)
LESSON DESCRIPTION • This section provides an opportunity for the author of the lesson to share some thoughts, experience, and advice with other teachers. It also provides a general overview of the lesson in terms of topic focus, activities, and purpose. • What is unique about this lesson? • How did your students like it? • What level of learning is covered by this lesson plan? (Think of Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation.)
LESSON PROCEDURE • This section provides a detailed, step-by- step description of how to replicate the lesson and achieve lesson plan objectives. • This is usually intended for the teacher and provides suggestions on how to proceed with implementation of the lesson plan. • It also focuses on what the teacher should have students do during the lesson. • This section is basically divided into several components: an introduction, a main activity, and closure.
INTRODUCTION • How will you introduce the ideas and objectives of this lesson? • How will you get students attention and motivate them in order to hold their attention? • How can you tie lesson objectives with student interests and past classroom activities? • What will be expected of students?
MAIN ACTIVITY • What is the focus of the lesson? • How would you describe the flow of the lesson to another teacher who will replicate it? • What does the teacher do to facilitate learning and manage the various activities? • What are some good and bad examples to illustrate what you are presenting to students? • How can this material be presented to ensure each student will benefit from the learning experience?
RULE 1 • Take into consideration what students are learning (a new skill, a rule or formula, a concept/fact/idea, an attitude, or a value). • Choose one of the following techniques to plan the lesson content based on what your objectives are: • Demonstration ==> list in detail and sequence of the steps to be performed • Explanation ==> outline the information to be explained • Discussion ==> list of key questions to guide the discussion
CLOSURE / CONCLUSION • What will you use to draw the ideas together for students at the end? • How will you provide feedback to students to correct their misunderstandings and reinforce their learning? Follow up Lessons/Activities • What activities might you suggest for enrichment and remediation? • What lessons might follow as a result of this lesson?
ASSESSMENT & EVALUATION • Social Studies rubrics and Flat-Earth Stanley examples • This section focuses on ensuring that your students have arrived at their intended destination. You will need to gather some evidence that they did. This usually is done by gathering students work and assessing this work using some kind of grading rubric that is based on lesson objectives. You could also replicate some of the activities practiced as part of the lesson, without providing the same level of guidance as during the lesson. You could always quiz students on various concepts and problems as well. • How will you evaluate the objectives that were identified? • Have students practiced what you are asking them to do for evaluation?
RULE 2 • Be sure to provide students with the opportunity to practice what you will be assessing them on. • You should never introduce new material during this activity. • Also, avoid asking higher level thinking questions if students have not yet engaged in such practice during the lesson. • For example, if you expect students to apply knowledge and skills, they should first be provided with the opportunity to practice application.
PROF195 CM ASSIGNMENTAssignment 1 – due Nov. 7 via email firstname.lastname@example.org • Summary • Good points • Weak points • Opinion – especially if relevant to your community • 2 pages, double space
DIRECT INSTRUCTION• objectives• standards• anticipatory set• teaching • input • modeling • check for understanding• guided practice/monitoring• closure• independent practice
OBJECTIVES• Before the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the teaching objectives are.• What, specifically, should the student be able to do, understand, care about as a result of the teaching.• Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives which is shown below, gives an idea of the terms used in an instructional objective.
STANDARDS• The teacher needs to know what standards of performance are to be expected and when pupils will be held accountable for what is expected.• The pupils should be informed about the standards of performance.• Standards: an explanation of the type of lesson to be presented, procedures to be followed, and behavioral expectations related to it, what the students are expected to do, what knowledge or skills are to be demonstrated and in what manner.
HOOK• Anticipatory set or Set Induction: sometimes called a "hook" to grab the students attention: actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson. To put students into a receptive frame of mind. • to focus student attention on the lesson. • to create an organizing framework for the ideas, principles, or information that is to follow (c.f., the teaching strategy called "advance organizers"). • to extend the understanding and the application of abstract ideas through the use of example or analogy...used any time a different activity or new concept is to be introduced.
TEACHING/PRESENTATION:• Input• Modeling• Checking for Understanding.
INPUT• The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill • lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, etc.
MODELING • Once the material has been presented, the teacher uses it to show students examples of what is expected as an end product of their work. • The critical aspects are explained through labeling, categorizing, comparing, etc. • Students are taken to the application level (problem-solving, comparison, summarizing, etc.)
CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING• Determination of whether students have "got it" before proceeding.• It is essential that students practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice.• If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept/skill should be re-taught before practice begins.
QUESTIONING STRATEGIES: • asking questions that go beyond mere recall to probe for the higher levels of understanding...to ensure memory network binding and transfer. • Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a structure for questioning that is hierarchical and cumulative. • It provides guidance to the teacher in structuring questions at the level of proximal development, i.e., a level at which the pupil is prepared to cope. • Questions progress from the lowest to the highest of the six levels of the cognitive domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
GUIDED PRACTICE• An opportunity for each student to demonstrate grasp of new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teachers direct supervision.• The teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needed.• "Praise, prompt, and leave" is suggested as a strategy to be used in guided practice.
CLOSURE• Those actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate conclusion.• Used to help students bring things together in their own minds, to make sense out of what has just been taught.• "Any questions? No. OK, lets move on" is not closure.
PURPOSE OF CLOSURE • to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson, • to help organize student learning, • to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc., • to reinforce the major points to be learned...to help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possibilities for cues for retrieval. Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole, and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the students conceptual network.
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE • Once pupils have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. • It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. • It may be home work or group or individual work in class. • It can be utilized as an element in a subsequent project. • It should provide for decontextualization: enough different contexts so that the skill/concept may be applied to any relevant situation...not only the context in which it was originally learned. • The failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to be able to apply something learned.
SUMMARY• You told them what you were going to tell them with set,• you tell them with presentation,• you demonstrate what you want them to do with modeling,• you see if they understand what youve told them with checking for understanding, and• you tell them what youve told them by tying it all together with closure.
7 STEP LESSON PLANThe basic lesson plan outline contains 1)objectives, 2) standards, 3) anticipatory set, 4)teaching [input, modeling, and check forunderstanding], 5) guided practice, 6) closure, and7) independent practice. If you count input,modeling, and check for understanding as threesteps, there are nine elements...not the seven
ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION • Four step instructional process • Watch how I do it [modeling] • You help me do it (or we do it together) [together] • Ill watch you do it or praise, prompt and leave [guided practice] • You do it alone [independent practice].
TRICKS• Motivation "TRICKS"• Feeling Tone• Reward [extrinsic/intrinsic]• Interest• Level of Concern • accountability • time to produce • visibility • predictability• Knowledge of results• Success
WAYS OF MONITORING• Oral individual• Oral together• Visual answers, e.g., "thumbs"• Written• Task Performance• Group sampling
QUESTIONING GUIDELINES• Place signal [get their attention], then ask question• Ask question before designating the person to answer• Do not repeat nor rephrase the students response. May ask for agreement by class or for others to respond. [I suggest you should explain why the answer is good, however. ]• Ask question then wait for 50% of hands [or "bright eyes," knowing looks]• Never ask a question of a student who you know cannot answer.• If the student is confused or cant answer, calmly repeat the same question or give a direct clue.
RETENTION, REINFORCEMENT• Meaning/understanding (the most effective way to learn)• Degree of original learning. Learn it well the first time. [And dont practice it wrong!]• Feeling tone. [positive or negative will work but negative has some undesirable side effects.]• Transfer [emphasize similarities for positive transfer and differences where there might be an incorrect transfer.]• Schedule of Practice.
CREATING DIRECTIONS• break down into parts/steps.• Give only three at a time, one if the behavior is new.• Delay giving instructions until just before the activity.• Give directions in the correct sequence.• Plan dignified help for those who dont tune in. [no put-downs]• Give directions visually as well as orally (Visual representation of the task)
GIVING DIRECTIONS• Give the planned directions [creation above].• Check the students understanding ["Any questions?" does not check understanding.]• Have a student model the behavior. [I.e, on the board or orally.]• If needed, remediate and recheck. [It is essential that students do not practice error.]
BLOOM’S TAXONOMY: COGNITIVE• Knowledge: recognize or recall information. Words typically used: define, recall, recognize, remember, who, what, where, when.• Comprehension: demonstrate that the student has sufficient understanding to organize and arrange material mentally. Words typically used: describe, compare, contrast, rephrase, put in your own words, explain the main idea.• Application: a question that asks a student to apply previously learned information to reach an answer. Solving math word problems is an example. Words typically used: apply, classify, use, choose, employ, write and example, solve, how many, which, what is.• Analysis: higher order questions that require students to think critically and in depth. Words typically used: identify motives/causes, draw conclusions, determine evidence, support, analyze, why.• Synthesis: higher order question that asks the student to perform original and creative thinking. Words typically used in synthesis questions: predict, produce, write, design, develop, synthesize, construct, how can we improve, what would happen if, can you devise, how can we solve.• Evaluation: a higher level question that does not have a single correct answer. It requires the student to judge the merit of an idea, a solution to a problem, or an aesthetic work. It can also precede a follow-up analysis or synthesis question like, "Why?"
TAXONOMY: AFFECTIVEaddresses interests, attitudes, opinions, appreciations, values, and emotional sets• Receiving. The student passively attends to particular phenomena or stimuli• Valuing. The worth a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. Ranges from acceptance to commitment• Organization. Bringing together different values, resolving conflicts among them, and starting to build an internally consistent value system--comparing, relating and synthesizing values and developing a philosophy of life.• Objectives: recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsibility in a democracy, understands the role of systematic planning in solving problems, accepts responsibility for own behavior.• Characterization by a Value or Value Complex. At this level, the person has held a value system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time that a characteristic "life style" has been developed.
TAXONOMY: PSYCHO-MOTOR• Reflex movements. Segmental, intersegmental, and suprasegmental reflexes.• Basic-fundamental movements. Locomotor movements, nonlocomotor movements, manipulative movements.• Perceptual abilities. Kinesthetic, visual, auditory and tactile discrimination and coordinated abilities.• Physical abilities. Endurance, strength, flexibility, and agility.• Skilled movements. Simple, compound, and complex adaptive skills.• Nondiscursive communication. Expressive and interpretive movement. • Sample general objectives: writes smoothly and legibly; accurately reproduces a picture, map, etc.; operates a [machine] skillfully; plays the piano skillfully; demonstrates correct swimming form; drives an automobile skillfully; creates a new way of performing [creative dance]; etc. • Behavioral terms: assembles, builds, composes, fastens, grips, hammers, makes, manipulates, paints, sharpens, sketches, uses, etc.
MANAGEMENT: KOUNIN MODEL With-itness, Alerting, and Group Management. • The ripple effect: when you correct one pupils behavior, it tends to change the behavior of others. • The teacher needs to be with it to know what is going on everywhere in the room at all times. • Smooth transitions between activities and maintaining momentum are key to effective group management. • Optimal learning takes place when teachers keep pupils alert and held accountable for learning. • Boredom [satiation] can be avoided by providing variety to lessons, the classroom environment and by pupil awareness of progress.
THE NEO-SKINNERIAN MODEL: • Behavior is conditioned by its consequences. Behavior is strengthened if followed immediately by reinforcement. Behavior is weakened if it is not reinforced. ["Extinction."] Behavior is also weakened if it is followed by punishment. • In the beginning stages of learning, reinforcement provided every time the behavior occurs produces the best results. • Behavior can be maintained by irregular reinforcement. Reinforcers include verbal approval, smiles, "thumbs up," high grades, free reading time, goodies, prizes and awards.
THE GINOTT MODEL:Addressing the Situation with Sane Messages. • Discipline is little-by-little, step-by-step. The teachers self- discipline is key. Model the behavior you want in students. • Use sane messages when correcting misbehavior. Address what the student is doing, dont attack the students character [personal traits]. Labeling disables. • Use communication that is congruent with students own feelings about the situation and themselves. • Invite cooperation rather than demanding it. • Teachers should express their feelings--anger--but in sane ways. "What you are doing makes me very angry. I need you to ...." • Sarcasm is hazardous. • Praise can be dangerous; praise the act, not the student and in a situation that will not turn peers against the pupil. • Apologies are meaningless unless it is clear that the person intends to improve. • Teachers are at their best when they help pupils develop their self-esteem and to trust their own experience.
THE GLASSER MODEL:• Good Behavior Comes from Good Choices.• Glassers recent work focuses on the class meeting as a means of developing class-wide discipline. See the chapter on The Classroom Meeting in Joyce and Weil, Models of Teaching. [For those who have their classes under control and would like to try to go beyond teacher- imposed discipline, William Glassers approach is worth serious consideration.• Students are rational beings capable of controlling their own behavior.• Help pupils learn to make good choices, since good choices produce good behavior.• Do not accept excuses for bad behavior. Ask, "What choices did you have? Why did you make that choice? Did you like the result? What have you learned?"• Reasonable consequences should always follow good or bad student behavior. [Usually developed in classroom meetings,] class rules are essential to a good learning climate, they must be enforced. Classroom meetings are a good way to develop and maintain class behavior. [The group diagnoses the problem and seeks solutions.]
THE DREIKURS MODEL:• Confronting Mistaken Goals.• Discipline is not punishment. It means self-control.• The teachers role is helping pupils to impose limits on themselves.• Teachers can model democratic behavior by providing guidance and leadership and involving pupils in setting rules and consequences.• All students want to belong. Their behavior is directed to belonging.• Misbehavior is the result of their mistaken belief that it will gain them peer recognition. [It is usually a mistake to assume that misbehavior is an attack directed at the teacher.]• Misbehavior is directed at mistaken goals: attention-getting, power-seeking, revenge, and displaying inadequacy. The trick is to identify the goal and act in ways that do not reinforce mistaken goals.• Teachers should encourage students efforts, but avoid praising their work [?] or character. [Others disagree.]• Support the idea that negative consequences follow inappropriate behavior by your actions.
LIMIT SETTING ACTSNon-verbal:•Eye contact--composed face•Proximity•Calming gesture•Place hand on the pupils desk or book•Open students book and point at work to be started•Tap on teachers desk•Flash lights off and on•Personal contact [touching is powerful and potentiallydangerous]•Peer pressure [may assist but not something teacher candirect]•Model expected behavior•Point to posted rule•Circle child who is asleep/off-task while continuing lecture•The Stare
LIMIT SETTING ACTSNon-verbal:•Silence [then follow up with gesture when the student looks up]•Blow a whistle, click a clicker, tinkle a bell, etc.•Ignore intentionally [note: by the time the teacher realizes thata child is off task, [there has usually been enough time forextinction to work if it is going to work.]•Start over•Talk with student after class•Nod or point with eye contact•Moving in [it is suggested that you not attempt the Fred Jonessequence unless you have been trained/practiced.]•Point at student•Hand gestures, e.g., palm down or out, thumbs down•Incorporate student who is off-task into the demonstration [nota put down: "Joe, please hold the end of this for me"]•Raise your hand [cooperative learning signal]•If a general problem, have class reenter the room
VERBAL ACTS SHORT OFCONSEQUENCES:• Call student by name• I need you to....• Quietly, calmly [one-to-one] state what you want, e.g., "I need you to...."• Compliment someone who is on task [Lee Canter says to compliment several acts before applying negative consequences]• Peer counseling [e.g., send a pair out so the rules can be explained before consequences affecting preferred activity time would be imposed• Broken record [in lieu of arguing about what happened] "I need you to...." "But Louie started it." "I need you to ...."• Limit setting acts are the preferred thing for the teacher to do to stop misbehavior...only use the negative consequences when limit setting isnt working or when the act is deliberate/persistent
EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: SUMMARY• The effective teacher emphasizes prevention rather than remediation in classroom management.• The teacher systematically approaches teaching by planning and preparing well in advance; setting expectations and teaching the procedures, routines and standards of behavior at the start of school and re-teaches as necessary; and• maintains these through prompt and consistent reinforcement of appropriate behavior and by providing appropriate, well-prepared lessons and activities that engage the learners.
EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGERS: • Plan classroom procedures and rules carefully and in detail. • Systematically teach students procedures and expected behaviors. • Monitor student work and behavior closely. • Deal with inappropriate behavior quickly and consistently. • Organize instruction to maximize student task engagement and success. • Communicate directions and expectations clearly. • At the end of a class period/teaching day, it is important to analyze and reflect on the lesson if improvement as a teacher is to occur.