Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave for Disaster
The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave for Disaster
The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave for Disaster
The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave for Disaster
The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave for Disaster
The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave for Disaster
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave for Disaster

1,230

Published on

The utilization of ultrasonic wave for disaster

The utilization of ultrasonic wave for disaster

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,230
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010 The Utilization of Ultrasonic Wave Modulated by Gamma Ray ( )γ for Detecting Victims Through Carbon-14 ( )14−C from inside as Navigational Aids in Evacuation of Disaster Victims Dr.-Ing.Ikhwansyah Isranuri and Umar Sidik,ST Research Center for Noise/Vibration Control, University of Sumatera Utara Jl. Tri Dharma, Gedung Magister Teknik Mesin, Medan 20155, Indonesia Email: isranuri@yahoo.com – umar.sidik@engineer.com In the principle that evacuation of inhabitant is an inhabitant transference from dangerous area like tsunami disaster, flood, conflagration and landslide to safety zone of the disaster. The result of the evacuation of inhabitant will be optial if be done by evacuation functionary that have good physical and mental along with modern equipments of evacuation. The evacuation functionary which have good physical and mental can be obtained from earthling, whereas the modern equipments of evacuation ccan be obtained from development of science and technology in science institution at Indonesia and other land. Research Center for Noise and Vibration Control or can also be called as N/VCRC has a topic of research that relate to equipments of evacuation, that is “The utilization of ultrasonic wave modulated by gamma ray ( )γ for detecting victims through carbon-14 ( )14−C from inside as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims”. The ultilization of ultrasonic wave has restrictiveness to the material, that is ultrasonic wave will be rebound if hit material based on its specific acoustic impedance. The restrictiveness of ultrasonic wave can be optimal if the ultrasonic wave has an ability to penetrate the solid substance, so it can be used for closed like subterranean and fallen buildings. The ability of ultrasonic wave to penetrate the solid substance can be obtained by modulation of ultrasonic wave and gamma ray. The modulation and demodulation of ultrasonic and gamma ray will produce a wave which still have ultrasonic characteristic and eve have characteristic of gamma ray. The ultrasonic characteristic of modulated wave will interact with carbon-14 ( )14−C contained inside of human. I. THE PROBLEM BACKGROUND In the principle that evacuation o inhabitant is an inhabitant transference from dangerous area like tsunami disaster, flood, onflagration and landslide to safety one of the disaster. The result of the evacuation of inhabitant will be optimal if be done by evacuation functionary that have good physical and mental along with modern equipments of evacuation. The evacuation functionary with good physical and mental will be have view and attitude base upon standard of fieldwork, whereas the modern equipments of evacuation will help the evacuation functionary and the modern equipments of evacuation will help the evacuation functionary and the modern equipments of evacuation more directed more directed and maximal. The evacuation functionary and the modern equipments of evacuation commonly form a optimum system of evacuation. The optimum system of evacuation is very needed by each of countries in the world for reducing the impacts of disaster happening on human of the country and even more for countries in which have high intensity of disaster. Indonesia is now one of the biggest population in the world. Indonesia is located beetwen the two continents, that are Asian continent and Australia continent along with two oceans, that are Indies ocean and Pacific ocean. The national territory of Indonesia is usually very susceptible for disaster, like eruption of Kelud volcano in East Java at 1966 that caused death by of humans or eruption of Merapi volcano in Middle Java at 1994 that caused death by 57 of humans along woth tsunami disaster in Aceh that caused death by 210.000 of humans. The total of amount for deaths which had happened can be minimized by made a success of optimum system of evacuation. The optimum system of evacuation will have transferred humans from dangerous area to safety zone of the disaster. In the principle that implement of optimally evacuation can be obtained by evacuation functionary which have good physical and mental and supported by the modern equipments of evacuation. The evacuation functionary which have good physical and mental can be obtained from earthling, whereas the modern equipments of evacuation can be obtained from development of science and technology in science institution at Indonesia and other land. The development of science and technology in science institution can be implemented if supported by governments and peoples of the world, that are moral and material support. The result of development of science and technology in science institution will be optimal if be done commony by technological transfer inter-science institution. To implement the development of science and technology inter-science institution is needed a
  • 2. 5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010 cooperation in science and technology, either a bilateral cooperation or multilateral cooperation. Research Center for Noise and Vibration Control is a sciene institution in University of Sumatera Utara (USU) that keep doing research on noise and vibration field that are infrasonic, audiosonic and ultrasonic for advance in technology and prosperity of peoples. Research Center for Noise and Vibration Control or can also be called as N/VCRC has a topic of research that relate to equipments of evacuation, that is “The utilization of ultrasonic wave modulated by gamma ray ( )γ for detecting vitims through carbon-14 ( )14−C from inside as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims” like seen figure 1 in this below. The utilization of ultrasonic wave has been done for along time ago, that are like a sonar which can measures the deepness of sea based on reflection-factor from mechanical wave or an ultrasonography which can diagnosed inside of object structure based on picture element in dimension by ultrasonic wave. The utilization of ultrasonic wave has restrictiveness to the material, that is ultrasonic wave will be rebounded if hit a material based on its specific acoustic impedance. The restrictiveness of ultrasonic wave can be optimal if the ultrasonic wave has an ability to penetrate the solid substance like seen in figure 1 this below, so it can be used for closed are like subterranean and fallen buildings. The ability of ultrasonic wave to penetrate the solid substance can be obtained by modulation of ultrasonic wave and gamma ray. The ultrasonic characteristic of modulated wave will interact with carbon-14 ( )14−C contained inside of human. To implement the modulation of ultrasonic wave and gamma ray will be needed a electronics system which able to convert gamma ray to be a carriers wave and ultrasonic wave to be an information wave then made them one to be a modulated wave which still have ultrasonic characteristic and gamma ray characteristic. Fig. 1. Sketch diagram of victims detector. In the principle the ultrasonic wave is a mechanical wave which have frequency above of human hearing threshold, that is 20,000 Hz. The ultrasonic wave can be obtained by either mechanical methods, like tunning forks and Galton whistles, or electrical methods like magnetostriction and crystal transducer. The electrical methods are most commonly simple methods used to obtain high frequency ultrasonic wave. The magnetostriction is used to obtain ultrasonic wave by approximately 30 kHz, whereas crystal transducer is used to obtain ultrasonic wave above 30 kHz until 15 MHz, but the crystal transducer can be configured commonly with microcontroller to obtain ultrasonic wave above 15 MHz until 10 GHz, if the ultrasonic wave is modulated with gamma ray so it will produce a wave which have ultrasonic characteristic and gamma ray characteristic like seen figure 2 in this below. Fig. 2. Processing of modulation for the ultrasonic wave and gamma ray. In principle the ultrasonic wave is a mechanical wave which have frequency above of human hearing threshold, that is 20,000 Hz. The ultrasonic wave can be obtained by either mechanical methods, like tunning forks and Galton whistles, or electrical methods like magnetostriction and crystal transducer. The electrical methods are most commonly simple methods used to obtain high frequency ultrasonic wave. The magnetostriction is used to obtain ultrasonic wave by approximately 30 kHz, whereas crystal transducer is used to obtain ultrasonic wave above 30 kHz until 15 MHz, but the crystal transducer can be configured commonly with microcontroller to obtain ultrasonic wave above 15 MHz until 10 GHz, if the ultrasonic wave is modulated with gamma ray so it will produce a wave which have ultrasonic characteristic and gamma ray characteristic like seen figure 3 in this below. The gamma ray is a form of energy from electromagnetic radiation which produced by radio activity or nulear process and other sub-atomic like crushing of electron-positron. The gamma ray contains foton with frequency above 1,019 Hz and the gamma ray is neither electron or neutron, so it an not be simply stopped by paper or air and solid substance. The gamma ray will deliver ultrasonic wave with certain frequency to go through subterranean and fallen buildings, so the ultrasonic wave can hit the carbon-14 ( )14−C which contained inside of human. The ultrasonic wave with
  • 3. 5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010 certain frequency which have been hitted the carbon-14 ( )14−C will rebound to source based on its angle of deviation. The ultrasonic which have been rebounded can be processed to be an information about existence of victims in subterranean and fallen buildings like seen figure 3 in this below. Fig. 3. Processing of information from the ultrasonic wave rebounded by carbon-14 ( )14−C . II. THE PROBLEM FORMULATION There are some methods that can be implemented to obtain ultrasonic wave for detecting victims based upon carbon-14 ( )14−C parameter which contained inside of human. The methods are mechanical methods and electrical methods. The crystal method is one of electrical method which can be used to obtain ultrasonic wave. The ultrasonic wave with certain frequency produced by the crystal methods can penetrate solid substance until hit carbon-14 ( )14−C inside of human if the ultrasonic wave is modulated with gamma ray and form a victims detector as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims yet, how shall a system of victims detector that most appropriate to be implemented as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims? III. THE LIMIT OF PROBLEM To make victims detector as navigational aids evacuation of disaster victims. IV. THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES There are some objectives of research as the following: 1) Obtaining a victims detector by using ultrasonic wave that be modulated with gamma ray ( )γ . 2) To implement one of electrical methods to obtain ultrasonic wave, that is crystal transducer methods configured by microcontroller system. 3) To implement carbon-14 ( )14−C as a parameter for victims detector. 4) To implement Human Computer Interaction (HCI) on system of evacuation for disaster. 5) To implement assembly language programming on system of evacuation for disaster. 6) To implement ultrasonic wave and gamma ray ( )γ on system of evacuation for disaster. V. THE RESULT EXPECTED The victims detector which can be used as navigational aids in evacuation of disaster victims. VI. THE RESEARCH BENEFIT There are some benefits of research as the following: 1) To help evacuation functionary and other to evacuating by more directed and effectively. 2) To eliminate the disaster victims that be death cause of can not be detected subterranean and fallen buildings. VII. THE PROPOSAL OF PROBLEM SOLUTIONS In the principle this research can be effectively implemented if be commonly done by technological transfer inter-science institution. The technological transfer can be implemented if researchers are given opportunity to do research in science institution which have the ultrasonic and gamma ray testing along with carbon-14 ( )14−C testing instrument. VIII. THE EQUIPMENT NEEDED There are some equipments needed in this research as the following: 1) A set of ultrasonic testing instrument. 2) A set of gamma ray testing instrument. 3) A set of carbon-14 ( )14−C testing instrument. 4) A set of microcontroller instrument. 5) A set of digital electronics instrument. IX. THE METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION The implementation of research containts 5 (five) stages, that are: 1) Literature study the literature study is be done to obtain references that support designing and implementation. The references can be obtained by 3 (three) of source, that are: a. Source of libraries. The literature study by source of libraries cover books and journals finding. b. Source of internet. The literature study by source of internet over articles and e-books finding.
  • 4. 5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010 c. Source of industries. The literature study by source of industry cover informations finding in industries that relevant to ultrasonic wave, gamma ray ( )γ and carbon-14 ( )14−C . 2) Designing The designing will be done after the literature study. The designing will be done by 2 (two) stage, that are: a. To compile an algorithm. The first stage of designing is compiling an algorithm, that is systematically procedure finding to do research. b. Simulation. The second stage of designing is simulation, that is dynamical state examination by using artificial model likes of truthfully state. 3) Implementation Implementation will be done to know about the achievement of designing. 4) Testing The testing will be done to know about the achievement of designing and implementation. The testing will be done by 3 (three) ways, that are: a. Functional testing. The functional testing will be done to know about the working of victims detector. The functional testing covers testing of victims detector ability to transmit the modulated wave to the human and acceptability of the modulated wae to be processed. b. Victims detector accuracy testing. The testing will be done to know about the accuracy of victims detector to produce, to transmit and process the modulated wave to be an information about existence of victims in subterranean and fallen buildings. c. Reliability testing. The reliability testing will be done to know about the endurance of victims detector to its function after be used on different disaster. 5) Analysis The analysis will be done to know the characteristic of victims detector which contain of quantitatively analysis and qualitatively analysis X. THEORY Carbon-14 14−Carbon or 14−C (radiocarbon) like seen in figure this below is a radioactive carbon isotope with a nucleus which contained six of protons and eight of neutron. There are three of carbon isotope which naturally happening, that are %99 of 12−C , %1 of 13−C and in a small amount of 14−C at atmosphere. Half-life of 14−C is 40730,5 ± years. The 14−C will be loss through beta decay. Fig. 4. Radioactive properties of 4−carbon . The mass of 14−C is amu003241.14 . The carbon dioxide will be absorbed into body and all in universe. The human will absorb 14−C from food which derived from plants. Gamma Ray Gamma radiation like figure in this below, also known as gamma rays is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency (very short wavelength). They are produced by sub-atomic particle interactions such as electron-positron annihilation, neutral pion decay, radioactive deay, fusion, fission or inverse Compton scattering in astrophysical process. Gamma rays typically have frequencies above 19 10 Hz, and therefore have energies above 100 keV and wavelength less than 10 picometers, often smaller than an atom. Fig. 5. Radiation of alpha, beta and gamma.
  • 5. 5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010 X. ANALYSIS Analysis for modulation and demodulation are be done by using Fourier series. The Fourier series equation is: ( )dttf T a T o ∫= 0 2 ( ) dt T tn tf T a T n ∫= 0 2 cos 2 π ( )∫= T n dt T tn tf T b 0 2 sin 2 π ( ) ∑=       ++= ~ 1 0 2sin2cos 2 n nn T tn b T tn a a tf ππ Which the equaivalent of the wave is like seen in figure this below. Fig. 6. Modulated wave from detector. The gamma radiation will let drive the − β like seen figure this below. Fig. 7. Gamma ray radiation which bring out the ultrasonic wave. The gamma radiation will interact with proton to bring out the ultrasonic wave for detect 4−c like seen this below. Fig. 8. The gamma ray interaction. REFERENCES [1] K. Milton, “Handbook For Electronics Engineering Technicians,” McGraw-Hill. United State of America, 1984. [2] C. Benson, “Ultrasonics,” McGraw-Hill. United State of America, 1960. [3] M. Warren, “Physical Acoustic,” Academic Press, Inc. London, 1964. [4] B.L Theraja, “Basic Electronis,” S. CHAND & COMPANY LTD. New Delhi, 2008. [5] J. Urick Robert, “Principles of Underwater Sound,” McGraw-Hill. United State of America, 1983. [6] D. Rossing Thomas, “The Science of Sound,” Addison Wesley Company, Inc. United State of America, 1983. [7] T. Roger, “Digital Electronics: Principles & Application,” McGraw- Hill. United State of America, 2008.
  • 6. 5th Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster & Recovery 2010 [8] G. Iwan, “Buku Pintar: Seri Senior,” Pustaka Warga Negara. Jakarta, 2006. [9] H. David, “Fisika: Edisi ke-3 Jilid I,” Erlangga. Jakarta, 1985. [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_ray.html [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_particle.html .

Ă—