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    Reveres Osmosis  system Reveres Osmosis system Presentation Transcript

    • Plant Chemistry Reveres Osmosis System Prepared By : - Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC MSC ( Chemistry ) MBA ( Marketing ) umar7325@yahoo.com umarfarouq@nomac.com SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah Saudi Arabia 1
    • Reveres Osmosis System  Part 1  Water Chemistry  Sea water impurities  Simulation of Reveres Osmosis system  Anatomy of Spiral Wound Element  Principle of Reveres Osmosis  Part 2  Chemical Handling and safety  Corrosion phenomena  Membrane Fouling  Membrane Scaling
    • 4 At the end of the respective training course, the participants will be able to: • Identify the chemical Hazards & how to handle chemical material safely. • now the foundations of Water Quality Control to avoid the scale corrosion and biological growth in the reveres osmosis system, and to operate the mentioned at max performance. • Understand the troubleshooting events to the plant chemistry system. Vision • Water Quality Control will lead all to understand the limitations and international standards as well as increasing the plant availability. • Occupational health will maintain within high standards, zero incident. • Operational process will maintain highly performance due to plant chemistry troubleshooting. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC Main Objective
    • Water Chemistry  Water is an excellent solvent and dissolve to varying degree. any thing it comes into contact with it. Water born impurities  Water contains some impurities which are Dissolved inorganic compound Bi Carbonate, Carbonates, Sulphate , nitrates , Chlorides of calcium , magnesium ,sodium and potassium , inorganic Suspended materials, like clay, silt ,sand , soil and metal oxides, These can not be remove by filtration. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 5
    • Dissolve Organic Compound Humic acid , fulvic acid , tannine , insoluble matter such as dead bacteria and other biological products Dissolve gasses  Such as oxygen , nitrogen , carbon di oxide , sulpher dioxide , ammonia , and hydrogen sulphide absorbed from atmosphere and solid surface Micro Organism  Such as bacteria algae and fungi Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 6
    • Why Water is Unique  Water is only substance that exist in form of solid , liquid and steam  Specific heat = 1calorie/gram  It expand = 1600 time  Three Isotopes = H , D2O , T2O  Heat of fusion = 144Btu / Lbs  Heat of vaporization = 980 Btu / Lbs  Freezing Expand = 1/9  Depending upon pressure ,its boil with in the temperature = 35-704F* Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 7
    • Properties of Water  It is chemical compound expressed by the formula H2O.  It is formed by two item of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen  Due to different electro negativities of hydrogen and oxygen.H20 Molecule is electrically charged .  When the other molecule combine with it then will be formed hydrogen bonding  Water is the best solvent . It dissolved different substance In it and the process of dissolving Is desolation Model of hydrogen bonds Between modules of water Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 8
    • Sea Water  It is store house of impurities  It contain 3.6% by weight of solids.  Normally 75% impurities of sea water are Br, I , So4 , and Ca ,Mg , K , etc.  Cat ion and Anion Salts in Sea water Cations Anions Calcium Ca++ Bicarbonate (HCO3 -), Magnesium Mg+ + Carbonate (CO3 2-), Sodium Na+ Sulfate SO4 2- Iron Fe2+ (ferrous) Chloride Cl - Aluminum AI3+ Nitrate NO3 - Potassium K+ Fluoride F- Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 9
    • RELATIVE SETTLING VELOCITIES OF SAND and SILT PARTICLES IN STILL WATER Particle Diameter, mm Order of Magnitude Time Required to Settle 1 Foot 10.0 Gravel 0.3 Seconds 1.0 Coarse Sand 3 Seconds 0.1 Fine Sand 38 Seconds 0.01 Silt 33 Minutes 0.001 Bacteria 35 Hours 0.0001 Clay Particles 230 Days 0.00001 Colloidal Particles 63 Years Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 10
    • Shuaibah RO-Expansion Plant Media filters (32) Cartridge filters (9+1) 1st Pass RO (10) Permeate Tanks (2) Seawater pumps (2+1) Shock chlorination H2So4 FeCl3 Polymer SBS Antiscalant 1st pass HP Pump (10) 2nd Pass RO (10) NaOH Antiscalant Potabilization Plant •Nominal Capacity : 150,000 m³/hr. •1st Pass Recovery : 41.5 %. •2nd Pass Recovery : 90%. •1st RO Permeate = 168000 m3/day. •Feed Water TDS=37000-44000 mg/l. •Feed Water Silt Density Index: < 5(100%),<4 (95%) 5-Permeate Transfer Pump SWCC Tank 11 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Seawater supply Pump D M F Cartridge filter H P Pump Booster Pump 1st pass R O E R D 2 nd pass R O 2 nd pass Feed pump Permeate Transfer pump Potabilisation Backwash water Tank Out fall To SWCC Shuaibah II Storage Tank S MBS Anti scalant Anti Scalant Caustic sodaAcid Coagulant Polymer Back wash 12 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Training Module # 2 RO System Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 13
    • What is Desalination  Reverse osmosis is a membrane process where salty source water is supplied under pressure to a semi-permeable membrane resulting in the passage of fresh water through the membrane while the membrane prevents the passage of the dissolved minerals leaving them in the concentrated brine. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 14
    • Bacteria Silica
    • Definitions  SWRO – means Seawater Reverse Osmosis unit also called 1st PASS RO.  BWRO – means Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis unit also called 2nd Pass RO  ERD – means Energy Recovery Device.  PERMEATE – means the purified water passing through the RO membranes. Also called product water. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 16
    • Reverse Osmosis Membrane Feed Water FE-SEM Photograph of RO Membrane (UHR -FE-SEM) x Product Water Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 0.5um Ultra -thin Salt Rejection Layer Cross linked Fully Aromatic Polyamide 0.2um Supporting layer poly sulfon 45um Base Fabric Non- Woven Fabric polyester 100 um 17
    • The RO Membrane  The membrane layer which makes the separation is extremely thin (approximately 200 nanometer)  It is supported on a porous polysulphone backing layer which gives the membrane layer some strength (approximately 45 micron thick)  The polysulphone is itself supported on a non-woven polyester backing fabric (approximately 100 micron thick) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 18
    • The RO Membrane  Most RO membranes are made of cellulose acetate or polyamide composites cast into a thin film as a sheet (or sometimes as fine hollow fibers)  For potable water applications the membrane type typically selected are thin film sheets made from polysulphone with an ultra-thin (3 micron) polyamide salt rejecting layer Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 19
    • The Spiral Wound Element 20 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Anatomy of a spiral wound element  The pressurized feed water flows in an axial direction through the feed /brine spacer mesh.  The pressure forces some of the feed water through the membrane layer, leaving the majority of the dissolved salt on the feed side of the membrane .The water crossing the membrane is called permeate.  The permeate is collected in the permeate spacer material.  The permeate spacer material is located between 2 sheets of membrane .The 2 sheets of membrane plus the permeate spacer is collectively called a leaf. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 21
    • Spiral Wound Membrane Cutaway 22 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis Phenomenon  The reverse osmosis process can be used to purify water by removing dissolved minerals, and virtually 100% of colloidal and suspended matter to produce high quality water of improved color, taste and other properties at low cost compared to other purification processes. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 23
    • Principle of Reveres Osmosis
    • Particle Size and Separation Process Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 25
    • Temperature Effect Increasing Water Permeability Salt Rejection Feed Temperature Water permeability will increase about 3% per 1degC •Highest water temperature must be considered for warranty exposure •Highest operating pressure should be checked at lowest operating temperature. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 26
    • Salinity Effect Increasing Water Permeability Salt Rejection Feed Salinity •Salt rejection decreases at lower feed salinity (<400mg/l as NaCl) due to RO membrane negative charge effect. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 27
    • pH Effect Increasing Water Permeability Salt Rejection Feed pH Almost same •Salt rejection is rather constant over a broad pH range. •Salt rejection will decrease at extremely high and low feed pH Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 28
    • What is Boron (1)  Predominant reason for limiting Boron in water. 1)For Human  Reproductive dander ( represent )  Teratogenic properties ( suspected )  WHO preliminary limit < 0.5mg/l  EU guideline <1.0mg/l 2) Damage to Plant Crops  Leaf damage ( Citrus tree is very sensitive)  Reduce fruit yield  Induce premature ripening  Boron Concentration in sea water: 4.5-5.5mg/l  Sea water distillation water by RO membrane does not meet requested Boron revel. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 29
    • Boron Removing Process (1)  High pH RO Operation –SWRO Permeate is treated again with high pH Anti Scalant NaOH Permeate Low Boron Concentration <0.5 Feed SWRO Permeate Concentrate Borate will be change to ionized Boric H3BO3 + H20 H4BO4 - +H + Pka =9.2 Borate ( H3BO3) Boric ( H4BO4 ) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC pH 9.8 – 10.5 30
    • Boron Removing Process (2)  Boron will be change to ionized Boric H3BO3 + H2O H4BO4 - +H + pKa=9.2 Borate ( H3BO3) Boric ( H4BO4 ) B(OH)3+OH - B(OH) 4 - pKa=4.8 Difference of removal performance ( TM720 ) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC H3BO3 : 70% H4BO4 - : 99.5% 31
    • Suspected Problem during High pH operation Scaling problem is caused by excessive high pH operation , too low anti-Scalant dosing or too high recovery operation. Scaling substance : CaCO3, Mg(OH)2 pH control, anti-Scalant dosing and correct recovery operation are very important. - Correct pH measurement, - Good and enough pH meter calibration - Correct anti-Scalant dosing - Check anti-Scalant dosing rate and consumption very frequently. - 2nd pass brine pH & conductivity checking Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 32
    • Pressure Vessel Probing(1)  A flexible tube is inserted through the permeate port of a vessel to measure the permeate concentration at known intervals through the vessel.  Performed on vessels identified by the Pressure Vessel Profile.  Locates the elements or o-rings which are the source of high salt passage. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 33
    • Pressure Vessel Probing (2) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 34
    • Membrane De lamination Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 35
    • Membrane Oxidation  If composite polyamide RO membrane element are exposed to the oxidizing chemical such as free chlorine ,chloramines, bromine, ozone, or other oxidizing chemicals, irreparable damage is happened to the membrane ,normally evinced by decrees of salt rejection.  Lead and element are typically more effected than the other in case of oxidizing chemical present in RO feed water.  If several specific condition are assembled, chlorine generating problem might be occurred.  Dissolved Oxygen.  NaHSO3 (SBS)  Heavy Metal ion ( Cu, Co, Mn, etc. Low concentration ,ppb order ,is enough)  High Salinity chlorine ion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 36
    • Chlorine Generation Mechanism under existing of Heavy Metal  Even if RO feed water does not contain Chlorine, Chlorine will be generated  Following substances are required to generate chlorine. 1. Dissolved Oxygen, 2. NaHSO3 (SBS) 3. Chloride Ion 4. Heavy Metal Ion(Cu, Co, Mn. etc.)  Following chemical reactions in the process of generating chlorine (ex. with Copper). SO3 2- + Cu 2+ SO3- + Cu + *1 SO3 - + O2 SO5- *1 SO5- + SO3 2- SO5 2- + SO3- *1 SO5 2- + Cl - ClO - +SO4 2- *1 (ClO - :Chlorine, Cl2 ) Reference *1 : C. H. Barron and H. A. O’Hern, Chemical Eng. Sci.397-404 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 37
    • RO System Normalization These changes make difficult to know the real RO membranes performance Normalization is necessary to know real RO membranes performance at specific operating conditions(=reference data) Required pressure and/or permeate quality change (at fixed permeate flow operation) (feed pressure, permeate TDS) What is normalization ? RO feed water condition change (Temperature, TDS, pH) RO operating condition change (Flow rate, Recovery) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 38
    • Water Analysis Details - Conductivity - Sodium Bisulphite (feed and brine) (every shift only) - TDS (by 180degC) (once a week) - SDI (every shift only) - Chlorine (after SBS dosing) - ORP (Redox) - Turbidity (NTU) - Chloride – Sulphate - Bicarbonate - Silica -Nitrate – Fluoride - Boron - Iron Feed Water Analysis should include the following ions : Red color : Mandatory items of Shuaibah III warranty condition - Temperature - pH - Sodium - Potassium - Calcium – Magnesium - Barium - Strontium Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 39
    • High Permeate TDS Poor permeate quality can be caused by the following:  Changes in operating conditions  Damage to membrane (oxidants, hydrolysis, etc..)  Fouling  Mechanical Leakage Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 40
    • Causes of Mechanical Leakage  O-ring leak  Interconnector or Permeate Tube crack  Glue Line failure  Membrane de lamination  Membrane fracture  Membrane mechanical abrasion  Membrane degradation through chemical exposure Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 41
    • Reverse Osmosis Element  A reverse osmosis element can take several forms  Flat sheet, in a plate and frame device  Tubular  Spiral wound  Hollow Fine Fiber  Our discussion is limited to the Spiral Wound configuration.  This is the most commonly used configuration for large scale water and waste water reclamation purposes Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 42
    • PERMEATE FLOW % RECOVERY = X 100 FEED FLOW FEED TDS - PERMEATE TDS % REJECTION = X 100 FEED TDS PERMEATE TDS % PASSAGE = X 100 FEED TDS Calculation of Production 43 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • GLOSSARY USED IN R.O. PLANT • Anti Scalant - A chemical agent added to water to inhibit the precipitation or crystallization of salt compounds. • Bio fouling - Blockage or obstruction due to dead or living animal or plant matter • Brackish water - Water with TDS of 1000 - 10000 ppm • Brine - A saline solution with a concentration of dissolved solids exceeding that of sea water. • Colloid - Particulate matter usually <1 mm in size which does not settle out rapidly and not filtered easily. • Concentrate - The reject stream from RO unit 44 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • GLOSSARY USED IN R.O. PLANT (Cont..) • End use - The ultimate use of permeate water • Feed water - The input water to the RO system • Flux - The RO membrane throughput, usually expressed as gallons per square foot of membrane per day. • Foulant - Any substance that causes fouling • Fouling - The act of depositing suspended solids on the membrane surface or in the feed channel which impeeds the proper functioning of the RO unit. • Langellier Index - A means of expressing the degree of calcium carbonate saturation in the solution • LSI = pH(Sol) - pH(Ca) where pH (sol) = pH of the solution pH (Ca) = pH at which CaSO4 saturation starts LSI should be negative 45 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Module - The combination of membrane elements and their pressure tube. Osmosis - The tendency of water to pass through a semi permeable membrane into a solution of higher concentration so as to equalize the concentration on either side of the membrane Osmotic pressure - The pressure that is exerted by the salt solution separated from another aqueous solution by a semi permeable membrane tending to draw water across the membrane to equalize concentration on either side of the membrane. Oxidation - A chemical reaction in which the atoms in an element lose electron and the elements valence is correspondingly increased. Permeability - The passage or diffusion of gas, vapour, liquid, or solid through a barrier (membrane) without physically or chemically affecting it. Recovery - Ratio of permeate flow to feed flow, usually expressed as percentage 46 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Rejection - The process where certain materials are not allowed to pass through (i.e. are rejected) a semi permeable membrane. Salt rejection - The amount of salt in the feed water that is rejected by the reverse osmosis membrane, expressed as percentage. • Saturation - The state where all of the solute (salts) that can normally be dissolved at a given temperature have been dissolved. • Scale - A coating which forms on working surfaces of a system due to precipitation or crystallization of salt compounds or solids. • Semi permeable - The ability to allow some molecules in a mixture to pass through but not all • Silt - Sedimentary material consisting of fine mineral particles intermediate in size between sand and clay. • Silt Density Index (SDI) - A field test used to determine the fouling potential of reverse osmosis feed water. 47 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • SDI = 100(1-t1/t2)/ T where, t1 = Time required to pass 500 ml in the beginning, in seconds t2 = Time required to pass 500 ml at the end, in seconds T = Time between t1 and t2, in minutes BASED ON DEGREE OF FILTERATION • - REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES (96-99 % rejection of salts) • - NANOFILTERATION MEMBRANES (85-90% rejection of salts) • - ULTRAFILTAERATION MEMBRANES ( Colloidal & macromolecules separation) BASED ON MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION • - CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANES • - THIN FILM POLYAMIDE MEMBRANES 48 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • ADVANTAGES OF REVERSE OSMOSIS  ECONOMY : Low energy and operating cost especially when de-mineralising brackish water with TDS above 500 ppm.  REGENERATION FREE : Continuous operation requires no regeneration.  POLLUTION FREE : Environmental friendly because NO REGENERATION effluent generated like in Ion Exchange Process.  EXCELLENT PRODUCT WATER QUALITY : More than 97% - 98% rejection of Dissolved Solids and more than 99% rejection of un dissolved organic substances like Bacteria, Viruses, Colloidal particles and other organic impurities. 49 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • APPLICATIONS OF R.O. • DRINKING WATER - HOUSING, HOTELS, INDUSTRIES, OFFSHORE RIGS, RURAL AREAS ETC. • BOILER FEED WATER • ULTRA PURE WATER - PHARMACEUTICALS, MEDICAL APPLICATIONS • ULTRA HIGH PURITY WATER - ELECTRONICS AND SEMI CONDUCTORS • WASTE WATER RECYCLING - REUSE OF EFFLUENT OR SEWAGE WATER • SPECIAL APPLICATIONS - JUICE CONCENTRATION, METAL RECOVERY ETC.
    • PARAMETERS RES PONSIBLE FOR SCALING & FOULING ON RO MEMBRANES SEA WATER ANALYSIS Physical ChemicalBiological SS, O & G, Colour, Odour Micro org. Algae Planktons Inorganics Organics COD BOD Cations Calcium, Magnesium Sodium, Potassium Anions Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Alkalinity, Silica 51 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • OPTIMIZING RO PERMEATE RECOVERY 1. The recovery of large RO System is commonly chosen based on the potential for scale formation. The higher the recoveries, the greater the concentration of salts will be in the downstream membrane stages, thus the higher the potential for scale formation 2. Because of the need to ensure adequate turbulence within the RO elements, achieving higher recoveries is more difficult than just reducing the RO concentrate flow. 52 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Sr. No. R.O PLANT D. M. PLANT 1 Continuous operation. No. need for regeneration Regeneration is required every day. 2 Easy operation. Cumbersome operation. 3 Excellent Silica rejection. Good silica rejection. 4 Very less space required. More Space required. 5 No effect of even it TDS or raw water quality changes over a period of time. Increase in TDS or Raw Water quality over time reduces operating hours, increase operating costs & outlet water quality deteriorates. 6 Latest technology Old technology 7 Compact skid mounted minimal civil work. Large space and civil works required. R.O PLANT Vs D. M. PLANT 53 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • R.O PLANT Vs D. M. PLANT Sr. No. R .O. PLANT D. M. PLANT 8 Modular designed expansion possible. No expansion feasible. 9 Execution faster High execution time 10 Can handle wide range of TDS i.e. 500 to 60000 ppm Only effective within range of 100 to 1000 ppm 11 Very low operating cost. Payback period of capital cost differential could be 12-15 months & net saving after that depending on Sea /Raw water TDS. High operation cost. 12 Technology upgradation possible. Upgradation not possible. 54 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • MYTHS AND FACTS OF R.O MYTHS • R.O. SYSTEM IS COSTLY • DIFFICULT TO OPERATE OPERATION COSTLY • HIGH TECH TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH TECH PEOPLE • USED ONLY FOR SEA WATER TREATMENT • VIABLE ONLY FOR HIGH CAPACITY • MEMBRANE LIFE 1-2 YEARS (C.A.) FACTS • R.O. SYSTEM IS ECONOMICAL • USER FRIENDLY AND OPERATION ECONOMICAL • USABLE BY ALL LEVEL OF PEOPLE • USED FOR BRACKISH AND SEA WATER • VIABLE FOR ALL CAPACITIES • MEMBRANE LIFE 3-5 YEARS (P.A.)
    • 56 Chemical Handling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC Exposure
    • Exposure Route of Exposure • The route (site) of exposure is an important determinant of the ultimate dose—different routes may result in different rates of absorption.  Dermal (skin)  Inhalation (lung)  Oral ingestion (Gastrointestinal)  Injection • The route of exposure may be important if there are tissue-specific toxic responses. • Toxic effects may be local or systemic 57 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Exposure Time of Exposure • How long an organism is exposed to a chemical is important Duration and frequency contribute to dose. Both may alter toxic effects.  Acute Exposure = usually entails a single exposure  Chronic Exposures = multiple exposures over time (frequency) 58 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Father of Modern Toxicology Paracelsus—1564 ―All things are poisonous, only the dose makes it non- poisonous.” Dose alone determines toxicity All chemicals—synthetic or natural—have the capacity to be toxic Dose THE KEY CONCEPT in Toxicology 59 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • ―No employer may allow the use, handling or storage of a Controlled Product in a workplace unless the product carries a label and a material safety data sheet which meet the requirements of this Act and the regulations and unless the worker has received the training and information required to carry out the work entrusted to him safely‖ - Article 62.1, An Act respecting occupational health and safety R.S.Q., S-2.1 60 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Personal Protective Equipment Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 61
    • Anti Scalant Perm quest 0010E Care should be taken that the Anti Scalant is not affected by chlorine or other oxidizing agent. Anti Scalant retard the growth of crystalline salt structure in RO feed and concentrate stream. Anti Scalant, in conjunction with acid, can be used to control calcium carbonate scaling. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 62
    • Safety and handling of Anti Scalant  Ingestion of the anti Scalant may cause a jelly-like mass inside the intestine and may result in intestinal obstruction.  If in contact with skin, the affected area should be washed off with plenty of water. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 63
    • Caustic Soda Usage at RO Plant  Caustic soda is used in the second pass feed water to increase the pH to around 8-9.  The solubility limit of silica is higher pH particularly above 9.  Boron rejection is higher at higher pH. H3BO3 + H2O H4BO4 - +H + pKa=9.2 Borate ( H3BO3) Boric ( H4BO4 ) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 64
    • Caustic soda Usage at CO2 Plant  Caustic soda is used in the carbon dioxide plant for SO2 removal from the flue gas  Flue gas generated from the burner contains sulphur oxides that are formed due to sulphur content in the fuel oil  These gases are very harmful for the plant as they can cause corrosion of the plant.  They are removed in the scrubber where sodas ash 10% solution is circulated through a packed column.  The pH is maintained between 7 to 8. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 65
    • Safety and handling of Caustic Soda  It is incompatible with a wide variety of chemicals including many metals, ammonium compounds, cyanides, acids, nitro compounds, phenols, and combustible organics.  Heat of solution is very high and may lead to a dangerously hot solution if small amounts of water are used  Caustic soda absorbs carbon dioxide from the air Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 66
    • Safety and handling of Caustic Soda  It is very corrosive.  It can cause severe burns.  It may cause serious permanent eye damage and is very harmful if ingested.  It is harmful by skin contact or by inhalation of dust.  It may cause severe irritation of the respiratory tract, inflammation of lungs, difficulty breathing if inhaled  It may cause pulmonary edema Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 67
    • Monoethanol amine (MEA) Usage  Monoethanol amine is used for CO2 absorption in the carbon dioxide generation plant.  Flue gas containing CO2 is passed from the absorber.  MEA solution is circulated in a packed column where CO2 is absorbed in MEA solution.  The temperature of the MEA is maintained at around 35-40 degrees centigrade for better absorption of the CO2 where around 99% of the CO2 is absorbed. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 68
    • Safety and handling of MEA  Monoethanol amine is highly corrosive chemical.  It can cause eye and skin burns.  It can be harmful or fatal if swallowed.  It can cause dizziness and drowsiness if inhaled.  Monoethanol amine can cause respiratory tract infection and can damage liver, kidney if swallowed. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 69
    •  Repeated skin contact may cause a persistent irritation or dermatitis.  Immediately flush eyes with large amounts of running water for at least 15 minutes.  Immediately remove contaminated clothing and shoes.  If the person is conscious and can swallow, immediately give two glasses of water but do not induce vomiting. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 70
    • Potassium permanganate solution  Potassium permanganate is used for NO2, MEA, and acetaldehydes removal from the carbon dioxide gas.  . When CO2 gas enters the PPM scrubber, nitrogen dioxide, MEA particles and acetaldehydes are washed with potassium permanganate solution that is being circulated in the PPM scrubber. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 71
    • Safety, and handling of KMno4  Heat, shock, friction, or contact with other materials may cause fire or explosion.  Potassium permanganate is harmful if swallowed.  Breathing of vapor or dust of potassium permanganate should be avoided.  Acute exposure can cause irritation or corrosive to body tissue on contact.  Chronic exposure may lead to lung irritation and central nervous system disorders. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 72
    • Chlorine dioxide plant  Chlorine dioxide is generated according to the following reaction.  Sodium Chlorite (31%) + Hydrochloric acid (33%) = Chlorine dioxide + Sodium Chloride + Water 5NaClO2 + 4HCl = 4ClO2 + 5NaCl + 2H2O  Therefore, to generate 1 kg of chlorine dioxide, 5.7 kg of sodium chlorite, 5.7 kg of Hydrochloric acid and 1 m3 of water is needed.  This reaction takes place in water and therefore we have a very diluted solution of around 2000 ppm of Chlorine dioxide. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 73
    • Chlorine di oxide  5Naclo2 + 4Hcl 4Clo2 +5Nacl +2H20  Chlorine di oxide use for potable water disinfection  To protect drinking water from disease causing organisms, or pathogens  Chlorine has been hailed as the savior against cholera (an acute infectious disease of the small intestine),and various other water-borne diseases Chlorine dioxide Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 74
    • Potable water disinfection  The bactericidal efficiency is relatively unaffected by pH values between 4 and 10  Chlorine dioxide is clearly superior to chlorine in the destruction of spores, bacteria's, viruses and other pathogen organisms on an equal residual base  Chlorine dioxide has better solubility  No corrosion associated with high chlorine concentrations. Reduces long term maintenance costs  ClO2 destroys phenols and has no distinct smell Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 75
    • Chlorine Health Effects Table Bulletin work safe Alberta CH 067-Chemical Hazards Chlorine Concentration ppm Health Effect 0.03-0.04 Range of odour theshold 1-3 Mid irritation of the eyes, nose and throat 3-6 Stinging or burring in the eyes, nose and throat, headache, watering eyes, sneezing, coughing, breathing difficulty, bloody nose. 5-10 Severe irritation of the eyes, nose and respiratory tract 10 Immediately dangerous to life and health ( IDLH ) Concentration 10-25 May be fatal after 30 minutes of exposure. >25 Immediate breathing difficulty, build up of fluid in the lungs ( pulmonary edema)possibly causing suffocation and death. Pulmonary edema may be immediate or delayed >1000 Fatal after a few breaths Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 76
    • Chlorine Effect On Respiratory System External Effect 1. Directly attack to cilia 2. Na & K pump damage 3. Surfactant damage Internal Effect 1. GHS activate nephritic factor 2. Capillary damage 3. Sensory nerve 4. Interstitium Abbreviation Alveoli ASC Ascorbate Surfactant defensive system to prevent shrinking X Secondary Intermediate IL8 To digest to kill Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 77
    • Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( NIOSH ) Substance Original IDLH Value ppm Revised IDLH Value ppm Carbon Mono Oxide 1500 1200 Chlorine ( IWPP ) 30 10 Chlorine dioxide ( IWEP ) 10 05 Chloroform 1000 500 Hydrazine 80 50 Iodine 10 2 Ammonia 500 300 Bromine 10 3 Nitrogen dioxide 50 20 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 78
    • Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects Characteristics May cause immediate death or serious injury if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • Hydrochloric acid HCL It will be used as a disinfectant for potable water. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 80
    • Safety and handling of HCL  Hydrochloric acid is very hazardous in case of skin contact, eye contact, and ingestion.  It can cause corrosion, irritation, and ingestion.  It is slightly hazardous in case of inhalation.  Liquid or spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly on mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract.  Severe over-exposure can result in death.  Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and itching. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 81
    • Sodium Chlorite Naclo2  Sodium chlorite is required for the generation of chlorine dioxide.  It will be used as a disinfectant for potable water.  Ideally, 5.7 kg of sodium chlorite is required per kg of chlorine dioxide generation. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 82
    • Safety and handling of Naclo2  It is not a combustible substance but gives toxic fumes in case of fire.  Exposure to skin or eyes may induce redness and pain.  Inhalation may cause abdominal pain and vomiting. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 83
    • 84 1) Alert someone else immediately 2) Evacuate and barricade the area 3) If a chemical spilled on the body: Rinse the affected area with running water for at least 15 minutes, remove contaminated clothing and shoes while rinsing. Call for medical help. 4) Wear personal protective equipment: apron, gloves, safety glasses, face shield or respirator, according to the type of the chemical and the amount spilled. 5) Absorb the spill using absorbent sleeves and wipes Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC
    • BREAK Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 85
    • Corrosion  The destruction of metal by chemical or electrochemical with its Environment is called corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 86
    • Battery Analogy  Anode  Cathode  Electrical Circuit  Metal lost at anode Corrosion e - Electrolyte Anode Cathode Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 87
    • Factors Influencing Corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 88 pH Temperature Dissolved Solids System Deposits Water Velocity Microbiological Growth
    • Types of Corrosion  Biological corrosion  Cold end corrosion  Cavitations  Dezincification corrosion  Fatigue corrosion  Petting Corrosion ( localized corrosion )  General corrosion ( Uniform Corrosion ) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 89
    • Types of Corrosion  Galvanic corrosion  High temperature corrosion  Hydrogen attack corrosion  Inter granular corrosion  Stress Corrosion  Under deposit corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 90
    • Different Types of Corrosion attack General attack  When the corrosion is uniformly distributed over the metal surface.  The conceder amount of iron oxide produced by generalized attack contribute to fouling problem Localized or pitting attack  Exist when only small areas of metal surface corrode.  Pitting is the most serious form of the corrosion because action is concentrated in small area  Pitting may perforate the metal in a short time. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 91
    • Base Metal Localized Pitting Attack Water Original Thickness Pitting Corrosion  Metal removed at same rate but from a much smaller area  Anode very small  Often occurs under deposits or weak points  Leads to rapid metal failure Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 92
    • Different Types of Corrosion attack Galvanic attack  When two different metals are in contact.  The more active metal corroded rapidly. Common example in water system are  Steel & brass , Zinc & brass , Aluminum & steel , Zinc & steel ,  If galvanic attack occurs the metal named first will corrode Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 93
    • To Prevent Corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 94
    • Methods To Control Corrosion  Use corrosion resistant alloys: $  Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale  Apply protective coatings: Integrity  Use ―sacrificial anodes‖: Zn/Mg  Apply chemical corrosion inhibitors  Cathodic Protection Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 95
    • Cathodic Protection  Galvanic Sacrificial Anode Pieces of active metal such as magnesium or Zinc placed in contact with the corrosive environment and are electrically connected to the structure to be protected. Example: Condenser, Desalination( MSF ) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 96
    • The Galvanic Series ZINC - Anode STEEL - Cathode This arrangement of metals determines what metal will be the anode and cathode when the two are put in a electrolytic cell (arrangement dependent on salt water as electrolyte). Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 97
    • Fouling FOULING is the accumulation of solid material, other than scale, in a way that hampers the operation of equipment or contributes to its deterioration Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 98
    • Fouling The deposition of suspended particles on the membrane surface. o Foul ant on the membrane surface increases the resistance to the flow of water through the membrane. o Fouling causes lower productivity at constant net pressure or higher net pressure at constant productivity. o Sometimes higher salt passage will be caused by fouling. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 99
    • Membrane fouling is caused by  Improper pretreatment system  pretreatment condition upset  Chemical dosing system upset  Improper material selection (piping, valve, pump, etc.)  Improper flushing after shutdown  Scaling by excess recovery ratio  Biological contamination in feed water  Feed water chemistry change Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 100
    • Typical fouling materials  Suspended Solid, Colloid, silt, clay  Hydrates of metal oxides (Iron, manganese, copper, aluminum, etc.)  Pretreatment coagulant  Scale (Silica, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, etc.)  Organic chemicals (antiscalant, cationic polymer, nonionic polymer, etc.)  Biological contamination and its growth Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 101
    • Membrane Fouling Cause of Trouble : Fouling (Suspended Solid, Coagulant )  ( SS leakage from pretreatment )  Fouling Amount : 62.4g Ash Ratio : 75.9% (Dry weight) (SiO2:32%, Al:9.7%, Fe:4.8%) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 102
    • Type's of Membrane Fouling Microbiological Fouling Silica Fouling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 103
    • Type's of Membrane Fouling Membrane Degradation Iron Fouling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 104
    • RO Troubleshooting Matrix ( 1 ) Possible cause Possible Location Pressure Drop Feed Pressure Salt Passage Metal Oxide Fouling ( e.g Fe,Mn,Cu,Ni,Zn) 1st stage Lead Membrane Rapid Increase Rapid Increase Rapid Increase Colloidal Fouling (Organic & Inorganic Complex ) 1st Stage Lead Membrane Gradual Increase Gradual Increase Slightly Increase Mineral Scaling ( Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr) Last Stage Tail Membrane Moderate Increase Slightly Increase Marked Increase Polymerized Silica Last Stage Tail Membrane Normal to Increased Increased Normal to Increase Biological Fouling Any Stage, Usually lead element Marked Increase Marked Increase Normal to Increase Organic Fouling ( dissolved NOM) All Stage Gradual Increase Increased Decreased Anti Scalant Fouling 2nd Stage Most severe Normal to Increased Increased Normal to Increase Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 105
    • RO Troubleshooting Matrix ( 2 ) Possible cause Possible Location Pressure Drop Feed Pressure Salt Passage Oxidant damage (Cl2,ozone,KMnO4) 1st stage Most severe Normal to decreased Decreased Increased Hydrolysis damage (Out of range pH) All Stage Normal to decreased Decreased Increased Abrasion damage (Carbon fines , etc) 1st stage Most severe Normal to decreased Decreased Increased O-ring leaks (at interconnectors or adapters) Random (typically at feed adapter) Normal to decreased Normal to decreased Increased Glue line leaks (due to permeate back pressure in service or standby ) 1st stage Most severe Normal to decreased Normal to decreased Increased Glue line leaks (due to closed permeate valve while cleaning or flushing ) Tail element of a stage Increased ( based on prior fouling & high delta P) Increased ( based on prior fouling & high delta P) Increased Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 106
    • Fouling  Factors which influence fouling are:  Water Characteristics  Water Temperature  Water Flow Velocity  Microbiological Growth  Corrosion  Process Contamination  Environmental (i.e. atmospheric pollutants) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 107
    • Differential Pressure increase Problem of High Differential Pressure (1)  Fouling will be accelerated  RO element mechanical trouble thrust force  Getting difficult to remove by cleaning Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 108
    • Differential Pressure increase (2) Problem of High Differential Pressure (2)  Fouling will be accelerated  RO elements mechanical trouble by thrust force  Getting difficult to remove by cleaning Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 109
    • Typical causes of DP increase Upstream  Suspended solids, colloid, bacteria, silt, clay, iron corrosion and pretreatment coagulant in the feed water Downstream : scaling  Any stage mainly lead position : Biological fouling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 110
    • Bio Fouling Control  General Methods for Bio Fouling Control  Prevent contact with direct sunlight wherever possible  Disinfect make-up water  Regularly maintain and disinfect filters  Application of Biocides Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 111
    • Economic Impact of Fouling  Decreased plant efficiency  Reduction in productivity  Production schedule delays  Increased downtime for maintenance  Cost of equipment repair or replacement  Reduced effectiveness of chemical inhibitors Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 112
    • Scaling The deposition of sparingly soluble salts onto the membrane surface and/or the feed channel material. o Scaling occurs primarily in the downstream elements because of the higher concentrations existing in this portion of the RO system. o Common Scalant include • calcium sulfate, • calcium carbonate. • Silica o Less common Scalant include • Calcium Phosphate • Calcium Fluoride • Barium sulfate Mineral Scale Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 113
    • Scaling caused by  Too much high recovery  Higher pH operation  Lower antiscalant dosing  Water chemistry change Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 114
    • Single Element Test on site Single Element Performance Test on site Single element weight checking Single element performance checking Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC Membrane Spacers Opened Membrane Separator mash is pulled out 115
    • Single Element Performance Test on site  RO element outside visual checking  Single element weight checking  Single element performance checking  Measuring RO element weight after 30 min vertical standing water drain.  New element weight : around 15 -16kg (depend on water drain condition)  Weight checking will help to know fouling tendency in the pressure vessel. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 116
    • RO element outside visual checking  Single RO element performance measuring equipment on site is very helpful  To check RO membrane performance more reliably.  To check RO membrane performance before / after cleaning.  To carry out pre-cleaning test (if single element cleaning test is available) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 117
    • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 0.54 0.59 0.70 0.58 0.70 0.63 0.50 CL 0.61 0.25 0.35 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.95 J-10-1 J-10-2 J-10-3 NEW J-10-4 J-10-5 J-10-6 J-10-7 PermeateFlow(m3/hrs) SWRO # 2 Membrane Performance 09.07.2012 Permeate Flow ( m3/hrs) 118
    • Membrane Inspection Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 119
    • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist SIWEP NOMAC 120