Pretreatment System Chemistry
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Pretreatment System Chemistry

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Pretreatment System Chemistry Pretreatment System Chemistry Presentation Transcript

  • Plant Chemistry RO Pretreatment System Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah Saudi Arabia 1
  • RO Pre Treatments System  Water Chemistry  Pretreatment System  Coagulation Flocculation & Sedimentation  Chemical Handling and safety precaution  Biology and Chemistry for Filtration  Microbiological growth causes  Corrosion phenomena  Bio fouling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 2
  • 4 At the end of the respective training course, the participants will be able to: • Identify the chemical Hazards & how to handle chemical material safely. • Now the foundations of Water Quality Control to avoid the scale corrosion and biological growth in the pretreatment system, and to operate the mentioned at max performance. • Understand the troubleshooting events to the plant chemistry system. Vision • Water Quality Control will lead all to understand the limitations and international standards as well as increasing the plant availability. • Occupational health will maintain within high standards, zero incident. • Operational process will maintain highly performance due to plant chemistry troubleshooting. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah Main Objective
  • Water Chemistry  Water is an excellent solvent and dissolve to varying degree. any thing it comes into contact with it. Water born impurities  Water contains some impurities which are Dissolved inorganic compound Bi Carbonate, Carbonates, Sulphate , nitrates , Chlorides of calcium , magnesium ,sodium and potassium , inorganic Suspended materials, like clay, silt ,sand , soil and metal oxides, These can not be remove by filtration. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 5
  • Dissolve Organic Compound Humic acid , fulvic acid , tannine , insoluble matter such as dead bacteria and other biological products Dissolve gasses  Such as oxygen , nitrogen , carbon di oxide , sulpher dioxide , ammonia , and hydrogen sulphide absorbed from atmosphere and solid surface Micro Organism  Such as bacteria algae and fungi Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 6
  • Why Water is Unique  Water is only substance that exist in form of solid , liquid and steam  Specific heat = 1calorie/gram  It expand = 1600 time  Three Isotopes = H , D2O , T2O  Heat of fusion = 144Btu / Lbs  Heat of vaporization = 980 Btu / Lbs  Freezing Expand = 1/9  Depending upon pressure ,its boil with in the temperature = 35-704F* Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 7
  • Properties of Water  It is chemical compound expressed by the formula H2O.  It is formed by two item of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen  Due to different electro negativities of hydrogen and oxygen.H20 Molecule is electrically charged .  When the other molecule combine with it then will be formed hydrogen bonding  Water is the best solvent . It dissolved different substance In it and the process of dissolving Is desolation Model of hydrogen bonds Between modules of water Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 8
  • Sea Water  It is store house of impurities  It contain 3.6% by weight of solids.  Normally 75% impurities of sea water are Br, I , So4 , and Ca ,Mg , K , etc.  Cat ion and Anion Salts in Sea water Cations Anions Calcium Ca++ Bicarbonate (HCO3 -), Magnesium Mg+ + Carbonate (CO3 2-), Sodium Na+ Sulfate SO4 2- Iron Fe2+ (ferrous) Chloride Cl - Aluminum AI3+ Nitrate NO3 - Potassium K+ Fluoride F- Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 9
  • Types of Hardness Temporary Hardness ( Alkaline Hardness )  It is due to presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium in water , also called carbonate hardness. It can be removed by boiling and pretreatment process Permanent Hardness(Non Alkaline Hardness )  It is due to presence of chlorides , sulphate and nitrate of calcium and magnesium , it can be remove by ion exchange and desalination process Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 10
  • Types of water Raw water  Water taken from any natural source which is untreated Hard water  If salt of calcium Ca++and magnesium Mg+ +dissolve in water called hard water Soft water  If calcium Ca++and magnesium Mg+ + salt not present in water is called soft water Dami water  Water having no ion no mineral salt remove by ion exchange method are called demi water. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 11
  • Types of water Pretreatment water  Water having no turbidity no color and suspended particle is called pretreatment water Reverse osmosis water  Pure water by forcing saline or impure water through a semi permeable membrane across which salts or impurities cannot pass. Heavy water  Water having deuterium isotope of hydrogen is known as heavy water Pure water  Water having no impurities and having pH =7 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 12
  • RO Process flow diagram Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 13
  • Pretreatment System In this module we will learn about the Pretreatment process and the individual steps that make up the process; COAGULATION, FLOCCULATION and SEDIMENTATION. We will learn about the various types of equipment and systems available to effect Pretreatment of water, their expected performance and limitations. We will learn about operating procedures and practices to make the Pretreatment process work. We will also learn about monitoring and control practices available to determine how well it is working, as well as troubleshooting the process when it is not performing well. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 14
  • Water Pretreatment is the removal of suspended solids (microorganisms, dirt, silt, etc.) by settling from a water stream. Pretreatment is a mechanical/physical process which requires chemical conditioning to enhance pretreatment performance Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 15
  • CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN WATER  Turbidity ..... This is normally in the category of suspended material, but with particle sizes so small as to have an infinite settling rate.  Color ..... Particle size again falling into the colloidal or sub colloidal range. Color can also be present in a true solution.  Iron and Manganese ..... Only very small amounts found in surface waters, but sometimes large quantities are found in well waters.  Oil and Grease ..... Usually expressed as oil or extractable matter (Freon or Hexane) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 16
  • CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN SEA WATER  Hardness ..... Calcium and magnesium salts expressed as CaCO3.  Alkalinity ..... Bicarbonates, carbonates and hydroxides.  Acidity ..... Free mineral acids such as H2SO4 or HCl.  Dissolved Solids ..... Primarily chlorides, sulfates and silica.  Organic matter ..... Expressed as COD or TOC. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 17
  • RELATIVE SETTLING VELOCITIES OF SAND and SILT PARTICLES IN STILL WATER Particle Diameter, mm Order of Magnitude Time Required to Settle 1 Foot 10.0 Gravel 0.3 Seconds 1.0 Coarse Sand 3 Seconds 0.1 Fine Sand 38 Seconds 0.01 Silt 33 Minutes 0.001 Bacteria 35 Hours 0.0001 Clay Particles 230 Days 0.00001 Colloidal Particles 63 Years Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 18
  • Definitions • Coagulation - The electrochemical process of neutralization of surface charges (usually negative) to allow small colloidal particles to collide and form larger masses capable of settling or withstanding pressure. • Flocculation - The physical process of the formation of larger masses, often enhanced by the addition of long-chain polymeric compounds Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 19
  • COAGULATION  Coagulation is a process of charge neutralization of finely divided colloidal impurities in water into masses that will settle rapidly and filtered out of this process.  Coagulation involves neutralizing the negative charge particle to adhere.  For this purpose mixing can be accomplished by in-line static mixers Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 20
  • Coagulation •Destabilization of colloids by neutralizing the forces that keep them apart Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 21
  • Definition  Dissolved Solids – Organic or inorganic compounds dissolved in water, e.g. salt. Water is a nearly universal solvent. (TDS)  Suspended Solids – The amount of suspended particulate matter measured milligrams per liter (mg/l = ppm) (TSS)  Alkalinity – The acid neutralizing capacity of water, mainly sum of HCO3 -,CO3 =, and OH- concentrations  Apparent Color – The color in water caused by light absorption at different wavelengths due to the dissolved and suspended material  True Color – The residual color in water remaining after any suspended material has been removed  Turbidity - a measure of the clarity of the water in FTU, JTU, or NTU. It is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered or absorbed rather than transmitted as straight lines through water  Aquatic humic substances - heterogeneous, yellow to black, organic materials that include most of the naturally occurring dissolved organic mater Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 22
  • Rapid Mix  Static mixer  No moving parts  Creates velocity gradient for mixing  Rapid dispersion of treatment chemicals  Mixing for sweep flocculation  Hydroxide formation 1- 7 seconds (1-2 seconds warm water)  G - 300 - 16000 sec-1, who knows 23 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Flocculation •The agglomeration, or building up of smaller particles. •To form a bigger particle or flock can settle Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 24
  • FLOCCULATION  Gentle mixing is required to bring the small particles together permitting them to increase in size and settle more rapidly  Coagulant are chemicals used to neutralize the fine particles of suspended mater in water form flock that will settle and can be filter out .  Coagulant aid are that chemicals which added along with the coagulants help in larger and better flock formation.eg poly acryl amide. Poly acryl amide formula Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 25
  • Many factors influence Coagulation and Flocculation; • Mixing • Time • Amount of Solids in the system • Velocity Gradient (size vs. shear resistance) • Temperature Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 26
  • Chemicals Used In Water Treatment  Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) Al2 ( So4)2  Poly aluminum Chloride (PAC)  Ferric Chloride Fecl3  Organic Polymers Poly Acryl Amide  Inorganic/Organic Polymer Blends Structural Formula of PAC Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 27
  • Chemical reaction of pretreatment system  Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaHCO3 3NaSO4 + 2Al(OH)3+6CO2  Fe2(SO4)3 + 6NaHCO3 3NaSO4 + 2Fe(OH)3+6CO2  2FeCl3+ 3Ca(OH)2 2Fe ( OH )3 + 3CaCl2  Reaction takes place in two steps  FeSO4 + Ca(OH)2 3NaSO4 + Fe ( OH )2 +CaSO4  Fe ( OH )2 + O2 + 2H2O Fe ( OH )3 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 28
  • Chemical reaction of pretreatment system  FeCl3+ H2O Fe(OH)3 + 3 HCl  FeCl3 + CuCl FeCl2 + CuCl2  2FeCl3+ 3Ca(HCO3)2 2Fe(OH)3 + 3CaCl2 +7CO2  2FeCl3+3Ca(OH)2 2Fe(OH)3 + 3CaCl  Different coagulants and Coagulant aid chemicals which are available in market for pretreatment process  Coagulants 1) Ammonium alum Al2 ( SO4)2. 2) Poly aluminum chloride [Al2(OH)nCl6-n]m 3) Aluminum Sulphate Al2 (SO4)3 4) Ferric Chloride FeCl3 5) Ferric Sulphate Fe 2( SO4 )3 6) Sodium Aluminates Na2 Al2 SO4 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 29
  • Ferric Hydrolysis Reactions*  FeCl3 +3H2O Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl  Fe+++ + H2O FeOH+++ H+  FeOH++ + H2O Fe(OH)2 + + H+  Fe(OH)2 + + H2O Fe(OH)3 + H+  Fe(OH)3 + H2O Fe(OH)4 - + H+  2Fe++++ 2H2O Fe2(OH)2 +++++ 2H+  3Fe++++ 4H2O Fe3(OH)4 ++++++ 4H+  Alkalinity neutralization H+ + HCO3 H2O + CO2 From Water Quality and Treatment, 4nd Edition, American Water Works Association Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 30
  • Chemical for Pretreatment  Coagulant aid 1) Poly acryl amide 2) Magnesium chloride Mg Cl2 3) Magnesium Sulphate Mg So4 4) Bentonite ( clay ) 5) Magnesia Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 31
  •  JAR TESTING  Gang stirrer used to simulate plant’s  Flash mix time and intensity  Flocculation time and intensity (slow mix)  Settle for 10-15 minutes  Coagulants added at start of flash mix time  Flocculants added as start of slow mix time  pH adjustment if needed before coagulant for turbidity removal and after coagulant for color removal Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 32
  • RO Pretreatment Goals  R. O. Pretreatment Goals  Reduce SDI < 3.0 • Difficulties with very clean water • Consistent Operation  Do not contribute fouling agents  How to maintain the System Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 33
  • DMF Monitoring Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 3.12 4.40 2.77 3.46 3.79 3.10 3.24 3.98 2.58 4.20 3.89 3.97 3.84 3.96 4.40 3.80 4.51 4.35 4.42 4.48 4.60 4.26 3.97 4.12 3.85 4.24 3.93 4.104.05 4.154.10 CL 3.92 2.25 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75 5.25 14 5 17 11 9 23 24 32 26 3 1 30 6 31 4 7 28 8 22 27 13 10 29 19 12 2 18 16 21 15 25 SDIFirsttimeDMFModificationafter1hrsservictime DMF SDI Monitoring 12 Oct 2010 To 4 March 2012 Cycle 1 34
  • Sea water monitoring Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 35
  • pH  pH - The log of the inverse of the hydrogen ion (H-) concentration. The acidity or basicity of water is determined by the amount of H- present. 0 7 14 Acid BaseNeutral Rain Water 5 7.5 8.5 Drinking Water 6 Range for Ferric Coagulation Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 36
  • pH range of different products Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 37
  • Water Biology & Chemistry for Filtration 38 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Source Conditions  Possibly Anoxic or Anaerobic at lower levels – reducing conditions  Very high TDS, possible color  pH high but varied  Very low turbidity  Limited inorganic suspended solids  High temperature  Subject to biological growth Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 39
  • Source Components  Biological material  Algae  Bacteria  Protozoa  Viruses  Color  Colloidal solids - -- -- - - - - - - - Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 40
  • Inorganic Colloids  Clay, Silt and Precipitates  Characteristics  Surface charge  Electrical attraction  Double boundary layer  Effects of pH Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 41
  • Coagulation  Stable Colloidal Suspension  Mechanisms of Destabilization  Double - layer compression  Electrostatic attraction  Enmeshment  Interparticle bridging  Effects of pH  Restabilization  Coagulation with Ferric Chloride Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 42
  • Coagulation  Charge neutralization  Formation of ―microflocs‖  Attraction to charged particles - - - -- - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - - - Fe(OH)3 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 43
  • Flocculation  Charge neutralization Fe(OH)3 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 44
  • Flocculation  Sweep flocculation Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 45
  • Flocculation  Bridging - - - -- - -- - -- -- - - - - - - -- -- - -- -- - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 46
  • Coagulant Aids - Polymers  Cationic  Primary coagulant  Coagulant aid  Nonionic  Improved floc retention  Filter aid  Anionic  Coagulant aid  Sludge thickening  Not expected to be used – info just for knowledge Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 47
  • Chemical Feed Calculations  Conversions  Water • 1 meter3 = 1000 liters • 1 Kilogram per Liter  Specific Gravity (S. G.) = weight of liquid / weight of water  Parts Per Million (PPM) = units / million units • grams / million grams • the same as milligrams per liter (mg/l)  Chemical Feed Rates  Liquid  Dry Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 48
  • Filtration  Surface Straining  Depth  Adsorption  Adhesion  Coagulation  Flocculation  Sedimentation  Hydraulic shear Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 49
  • Filtration  Media aging  Effect on attachment of particles  Time and means of development  Effects of media growth  Effects of overgrowth Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 50
  • Filter Operation  Solids accumulation  Increased resistance to flow  Higher shear development  Turbidity breakthrough  Service run length  Accumulated time  Potential for biological growth  Headloss 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Turbidity Headloss Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 51
  • Filter Backwash  Cleaning action  Interparticle collision  Hydraulic shear  Backwash  Water only wash  Water with auxiliary wash  Rates  Temperature effects  Bed expansion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 52
  • Filter Backwash  Factors effecting particle movement  Shape  Size  Specific gravity  Changes with time  Changes with solids  Rate selection  Temperature effects  Bed expansion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 53
  • My Rules  Feed only as much chemical as necessary to achieve the quality goals  Feed enough chemicals to achieve the quality goals  Constantly review the chemistry  Allow plenty of time after any change for equilibrium to be achieved  Turbidity values can be misleading  Check as necessary to make sure no biological fouling is developing  Never be in a hurry in a water plant.  Always refill from the bottom  Observe at least one filter backwash per day Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 54
  • 55 Safe Chemical Handling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Exposure • In order for a chemical to produce a biological effect, it must first reach a target individual (exposure pathway). • Then the chemical must reach a target site within the body (toxicokinetics). • Toxicity is a function of the effective dose (how much) of a foreign chemical (xenobiotic) at its target site, integrated over time (how long). • Individual factors such as body weight will influence the dose at the target site X = 56 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Exposure Route of Exposure • The route (site) of exposure is an important determinant of the ultimate dose—different routes may result in different rates of absorption.  Dermal (skin)  Inhalation (lung)  Oral ingestion (Gastrointestinal)  Injection • The route of exposure may be important if there are tissue-specific toxic responses. • Toxic effects may be local or systemic 57 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Exposure Time of Exposure • How long an organism is exposed to a chemical is important Duration and frequency contribute to dose. Both may alter toxic effects.  Acute Exposure = usually entails a single exposure  Chronic Exposures = multiple exposures over time (frequency) 58 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Father of Modern Toxicology Paracelsus—1564 ―All things are poisonous, only the dose makes it non- poisonous.” Dose alone determines toxicity All chemicals—synthetic or natural—have the capacity to be toxic Dose THE KEY CONCEPT in Toxicology 59 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • The emerging field of ―Pharmacogenomics‖ or ―Toxicogenomics‖ offers the potential to identify and protect subsets of people predisposed to toxicity from chemicals or drugs Typical Population Identify People with “normal” responses More Sensitive Less Sensitive 60 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 61 Acids – A corrosive chemical that proteinizes upon contact with body tissue and causes immediate pain. Bases – A corrosive chemical that does not proteinize upon contact with body tissue and does not cause Immediate pain. Carcinogens - Substances which under favorable conditions through direct or indirect action, either externally or internally, act on healthy cells to cause a metamorphosis and bring about a rapid proliferation of cellular elements and the development of structure abnormalities. Chemical – Means any element, chemical compound or mixture of elements and/or compounds
  • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 62 Compressed Gas – Non Flammable materials which have a PSIA greater than 40 at 70*F, or a PSIA greater than 104 at 104*F, or those Flammable materials which have a PSIA greater than 40 at 100*F. Those with sufficiently high toxicity are class “A” poisons and receive a Poison gas label. All flammable gas, liquefied or non-liquefied and dissolved have flash points below room temperature. It’s impossible to avoid forming a flammable mixture if any leaks into the air. Container – Means any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum Reaction vessel, storage tank or the like that contains hazardous chemical.
  • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 63 Explosive – Substances under which certain conditions of shock, temperature or chemical reaction decompose with violent rapidity, usually releasing large quantities of gasses and heat. Exposure/Exposed – Contact with a hazardous chemical in the course of employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.) and includes potential (e. g., accidental or possible) exposure. Flammable Liquids – A liquid whose vapor can form an ignitable mixture with air. The liquid is the fuel, the surrounding atmosphere is the oxidizer. For the mixture to burn an ignition source must be present.
  • 64 Are there portions in your workplace that are hazardous? Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • COMMON BASES (pH 8-14)  Sodium hydroxide (lye)  Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach)  Aqueous ammonia  Potassium hydroxide (Potash)  Ammonium hydroxide CRITERIA FOR STORING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS  Inspect before placing in storage  Separate acids from bases  Separate acids & bases from other materials  Use drip pans under containers  Use personal protective equipments (PPE)  Use correct dilution sequences  Use approve storage containers 65 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Corrosive Material Precautions Store acids and bases in separate areas Avoid inhaling these materials Avoid contact with skin and eyes Wear the recommended protective equipment and clothing Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • HANDLING CORROSIVE LIQUIDS  pH – The pH of a liquid is the numerical measure of its relative acidity or alkalinity. The range is from 0 – 14 with a neutral level expressed as a pH of 7.0  Above 7.0 – The liquid is more alkaline or basic.  Below 7.0 – The liquid is more acidic COMMON ACIDS  Hydrochloric acid  Hydrofluoric acid  Nitric acid  Phosphoric acid  Chromic acid 67 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Corrosive Material Characteristics ´Will burn eyes and skin on contact ´Will burn tissues of respiratory tract if inhaled 7 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • CRITERIA FOR HANDLING HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS  Can be extremely toxic to humans  Preplanning is critical when using these materials  Know the adverse health effects  Restrict access to these materials  Carefully review storage requirements  Ensure sufficient training levels achieved  Use adequate personal protective equipments  Use Approve storage containers. CRITERIA FOR STORAGE STRONG HIGHLY TOXIC LIQUIDS  Inspect containers before placing in storage  Separate for incompatibles  Use Personal protective equipments  Use approved storage containers 69 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Materials Causing Other Toxic Effects Precautions Avoid inhaling gas or vapours Avoid skin and eye contact Wear the recommended protective equipment and clothing Do not eat, drink or smoke near these materials Wash hands after handling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • HANDLING REACTIVE LIQUIDS  Know the adverse health effects  Know the reactive nature of the material  Separate from incompatibles  Restrict access to these materials  Carefully review storage requirements  Ensure sufficient training level achieved  Use adequate personal protective equipment(PPE)  Use approved storage containers. STORAGE CRITERIA FOR STRONG REACTIVE LIQUIDS  Follow established procedures  Inspect before placing in storage  Separate from incompatibles  Use adequate personal protective equipment (PPE)  Use approved storage containers. 71 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Dangerously Reactive Material Characteristics Store away from heat Avoid shock and friction Wear the recommended protective equipment and clothing Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • STORAGE CRITERIA FOR STRONG SOLID MATERIALS  Inspect containers before placing in storage  Separate from incompatibles  Use mechanical devices to lift heavy bags  Use personal protective equipments  Protect from contamination in storage  Use exhaust ventilation  Empty bags have residual product inside  Use approved storage containers. 73 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • MANAGEMENT OF HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF EMPTY CONTAINERS:  Inspect containers for product residual  Do not use empty containers as trash cans  Check with environmental management  Triple rinse reusable containers  Remember _ Residual Product is hazardous too  Follow local procedures  Check with supervisor If policy is unclear. 74 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 75 Eye Protection Safety Glasses / Goggles Face Shield Respiratory System Protection Dust mask Respirator with Charcoal Filter General Purpose Respirator SCBA Skin Protection Apron Closed Shoes / Boots Chemical Gloves Impermeable Suite Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 76 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 77 YOUR GUIDE TO CHEMICAL SAFETY Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 78 1. Product Information 2. Composition/Information on Ingredients 3. Hazards Identification 4. First Aid Measures 5. Fire Fighting Measures 6. Accidental Release Measures 7. Handling and Storage 8. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection 9. Physical and Chemical Properties 10. Stability and Reactivity 11. Toxicological Information 12. Ecological Information 13. Disposal Consideration 14. Transport Information 15. Regulatory Information 16. Other Information Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Usage  Sodium Hypochlorite is use for disinfection 1. This is also used for disinfection of dual media filters during the process of backwashing 2.Residual chlorine of 0.3-0.5 ppm is to be maintained in the system just before the dosing of SBS 3.Chlorine existing in water as hypochlorus and hypochlorus acid ion ( Hypochlorite ) define as free available chlorine. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 79
  • Chlorination  HOCl <7 8> H + OCl Hypochlorous Acid  At the higher pH range as the ratio of Ocl increase as the sterilization effect of chlorine compound decrease.  It is practically observed that the sterilization force of Ocl is approximately 20 time less as that of HOCl  HOCl has significantly higher effect than Ocl Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 80
  • Chlorine compound  Chlorine compound used for sterilization of microorganism  Chlorine gas Cl2  Calcium hypochlorite Ca ( Ocl )2  Sodium hypochlorite Naocl  Cl2 + H2O HOCl +HCL  Ca (Ocl )2+ H2O HOCl +Ca ( OH )2  NaOcl + H2O HOCl + NaOH Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 81
  • Chlorine di oxide  5Naclo2 + 4Hcl 4Clo2 +5Nacl +2H20  Chlorine di oxide use for potable water disinfection  To protect drinking water from disease causing organisms, or pathogens  Chlorine has been hailed as the savior against cholera (an acute infectious disease of the small intestine),and various other water-borne diseases Chlorine dioxide Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 82
  • Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( NIOSH ) Substance Original IDLH Value ppm Revised IDLH Value ppm Carbon Mono Oxide 1500 1200 Chlorine ( IWPP ) 30 10 Chlorine dioxide ( IWEP ) 10 05 Chloroform 1000 500 Hydrazine 80 50 Iodine 10 2 Ammonia 500 300 Bromine 10 3 Nitrogen dioxide 50 20 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 83
  • Disinfection and oxidation  History of disinfection  Chlorine  Reactions • Gas - Cl2 + H2O ↔ HOCl + HCl (^ pH 4) • Liquid - NaOCl + H2O ↔ HOCl + NaOH • (^ pH 6.0) HOCl ↔ OCl- + H+ (^ pH 7.5)  Mode of action / problems  Shock chlorination – biological growth  Dechlorination Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 84
  • Chlorine Health Effects Table Bulletin work safe Alberta CH 067-Chemical Hazards Chlorine Concentration ppm Health Effect 0.03-0.04 Range of odor threshold 1-3 Mid irritation of the eyes, nose and throat 3-6 Stinging or burring in the eyes, nose and throat, headache, watering eyes, sneezing, coughing, breathing difficulty, bloody nose. 5-10 Severe irritation of the eyes, nose and respiratory tract 10 Immediately dangerous to life and health ( IDLH ) Concentration 10-25 May be fatal after 30 minutes of exposure. >25 Immediate breathing difficulty, build up of fluid in the lungs ( pulmonary edema)possibly causing suffocation and death. Pulmonary edema may be immediate or delayed >1000 Fatal after a few breaths Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 85
  • Safety Precaution of Chlorine  It is a very corrosive chemical  It causes burns to skin and eyes  It is harmful if ingested, inhaled  it may cause skin irritation  If it comes in contact with skin, immediately wash the skin with plenty of water  Flush the eyes if it comes in contact with the eyes Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 86
  • Chlorine Effect On Respiratory System External Effect 1. Directly attack to cilia 2. Na & K pump damage 3. Surfactant damage Internal Effect 1. GHS activate nephritic factor 2. Capillary damage 3. Sensory nerve 4. Interstitium Abbreviation Alveoli ASC Ascorbate Surfactant defensive system to prevent shrinking X Secondary Intermediate IL8 To digest to kill Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 87
  •  If inhaled, the person should be immediately removed to fresh air and medical attention should be sought if signs of suffocation  Eyes should be protected  Chlorine is corrosive to metallic material  To avoid corrosion should be maintain proper dosing Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 88
  • Acute Effects of Chlorine  Tickling of the nose at 0.014 to 0.054(ppm);  Tickling of the throat at 0.04 to 0.097 ppm;  Tching of the nose and cough, stinging, or dryness of the nose and throat at 0.06 to 0.3 ppm;  Burning of the conjunctiva and pain after 15 minutes at 0.35 to 0.72 ppm;  Discomfort ranging from ocular and respiratory irritation to coughing, shortness of breath, and headaches above 1.0 ppm. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 89
  • Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects Characteristics May cause immediate death or serious injury if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Chlorine Advantages  Economical  Traditional technology  Chlorine kill microorganism by destroying cell wall of the microorganism with there oxidizing forces Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 91
  • Chlorine Disadvantages  Slower kill at high pH  Consumed by ammonia, sulfides, iron, manganese, & hydrocarbons  Volatile and easily stripped, thus high usage rates  High feed rates and residuals can cause higher corrosion rates  Poor control (or slug treatment) leads to degradation of water treatment compounds -- e.g. organic phosphate and tolyltriazole  Chlorinated organics, e.g., THM’s, are toxic, regulated, and persistent in the environment Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 92
  • 93 REACTIVE – burns, explodes or releases toxic vapors if exposed to other chemicals, heat, air or water. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Sodium Bi Sulphite Na2S2O5  Used as a reducing agent for free chorine  Almost zero for compliance of the membrane tolerance limit  The most common and economical chlorine reducing agent is Sodium bi sulphite.  When dissolved in water, sodium bisulfite (SBS) is formed from SMBS Na2S2O5 + H2O → 2 NaHSO3  SBS then reduces hypochlorous acid according to 2NaHSO3 + 2HOCl → H2SO4 + 2HCl + Na2SO4 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 94
  • Sodium Bi Sulphite Na2S2O5  In theory, 1.34 mg of sodium metabisulfite will remove 1.0 mg of free chlorine. In practice,  however, 3.0 mg of sodium metabisulfite is normally used to remove 1.0 mg of chlorine.  In aqueous solutions, however, sodium bisulfite can oxidize readily when exposed to air. A typical solution life can vary with concentration as follows: Concentration (wt %) Solution life 10 1 week 20 1 month 30 6 months Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 95
  • Sodium Bi Sulphite Na2S2O5  When RO membranes are fouled with heavy metals such as Co and Cu, residual SBS (up to 30 ppm) partially converts to oxidants under the presence of excessive oxygen.  SBS dosing amount control must be optimized and oxidation conditions of the concentrate must be monitored by an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) meter Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 96
  • Safety and handling OF SBS  It is a fine white granular product with a pungent smell of sulphur dioxide.  It may irritate the skin and may cause irritation and burns to the eyes.  It reacts with acids to form toxic and irritating sulphur dioxide gas.  Immediately wash with plenty of water if sodium bisulphite comes in contact with skin  Flush the eyes if it comes in contact with the eyes Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 97
  • Sulphuric acid H2SO4 1.Sulphuric acid is feed at RO Pretreatment in the feed water stream to lower the pH to avoid the calcium scaling in the system. 2.Calcium carbonate solubility increases with decrease in pH 3.Calcium carbonate solubility decreases with increase in temperature Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 98
  • Safety and handling of H2SO4  It is very hazardous in case of skin contact  It is very hazardous in case of eye contact of ingestion  Liquid or spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly on mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract  Skin contact may produce burns Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 99
  • LAYERS OF THE SKIN BURNS & SCALDS TYPES OF BURN 100 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Ferric chloride Fecl3  Ferric chloride is used as a coagulant in Reverse Osmosis plant to aid effective filtration in the dual media filter  The use of ferric chloride increases the settling velocity of the suspended solids by flocks formational media filters.  Ferric chloride is effective in a wide range of pH Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 101
  • Safety and handling of Fecl3  Ferric chloride is very hazardous in case of skin contact, eye contact, and ingestion.  Ingestion may cause damage to the liver. gastric irritation, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Moderately toxic by ingestion.  Liquid and spray mist may cause tissue damage particularly on mucous membranes of eye, mouth and respiratory tract.  Severe irritant and corrosive to moist or wet skin  Inhalation of the spray mist may cause severe irritation of the respiratory tract  characterized by coughing, choking, or shortness of breath.  In case of eye contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 102
  • 67 Careless handling can cause real problems… Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 104 CORROSIVE FLAMMABLE POISON DANGEROUS WHEN WET SPECIAL SYMBOLS – helps you recognize the kind of hazard the chemical could present if not properly handled. These are found on labels of containers that have been shipped by truck, rail, or air. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 105 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 106 DEGREE OF HAZARD 0 – minimal hazard 1 – slight hazard 2 – moderate hazard 3 – serious hazard 4 – severe hazard HEALTH FLAMMABILITY REACTIVITY,INSTABILITY SPECIAL Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 107 Health Hazards  Corrosives/Oxidizers * Injuries to tissue or skin  Toxics/Flammables/Compressed gasses * Damage to Respiratory System  Explosives * Over Pressure * Flying Objects Radioactive * Radiation Sickness * Cancer Carcinogens * Cancer
  • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 108 Container Label Information  Safe Handling/storage Procedures  Health/Physical Hazard(s)  Primary Hazard(s)  First aid treatment  Manufacturer  Identity
  • 109 Make sure every container you use has a label. Report missing, dirty, or illegible labels so they can be replaced. Be sure to put labels on portable containers for all hazardous chemical. Read labels before handling containers- and follow their warnings. Ask your supervisor about any label information you don’t understand. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 110 1) Alert someone else immediately 2) Evacuate and barricade the area 3) If a chemical spilled on the body: Rinse the affected area with running water for at least 15 minutes, remove contaminated clothing and shoes while rinsing. Call for medical help. 4) Wear personal protective equipment: Apron, gloves, safety glasses, face shield or respirator, according to the type of the chemical and the amount spilled. 5) Absorb the spill using absorbent sleeves and wipes Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 111 6) Collect all materials into polyethylene Disposal bags. Collect any broken glass with a dustpan and brush and place in a labeled carton 7) Rinse the area and ventilate well until dangerous levels are no longer in the air 8) Remove personal protective equipment and place any disposable items in a polyethylene disposal bag 9) Place waste in appropriate, labeled containers 10) Replace any equipment that was used Investigate the incident with your supervisor including recommended preventative actions Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Materials Causing Toxic Effects Characteristics ´May cause death or permanent injury following repeated or long- term exposure ´May irritate eyes, skin and breathing passages: may lead to chronic lung problems and skin sensitivity ´May cause liver or kidney damage, cancer, birth defects or sterility Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 113 A) Flammable Gas / Toxic Gas: Evacuate the Area Remove sources of ignition and materials that can burn Put on SCBA and protective clothing as necessary Close the cylinder valve. If possible, without risking yourself If you can’t - stay in a safe distance, cool cylinders with water spray to prevent ignition, until all gas is released. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • 114 B) Fire in gas storage area: Evacuate the area Call the fire department immediately Put on full protective gear Cool cylinders with water spray continuously to prevent explosion of the cylinders Try to prevent the spread of the fire and wait for help Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • INVESTIGATE AND ANALYSE EVERY ACCIDENT 115 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • WHAT ARE UNSAFE CONDITIONS??? 116 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • UNSAFE CONDITIONS:  Unsafe construction  Lack of machine guards  Inadequate guarding  Defective working conditions  Poor layout  Overcrowding in workplace  No personal protective equipment  Unsafe lighting  Storage of hazardous substance 117 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • BASIC CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS: PERSONAL FACTORS:  LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OR SKILL  MENTAL OR PHYSICAL DEFECTS  IMPROPER ATTITUDE 118 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • BASIC CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS: JOB FACTORS:  UNSAFE CONDITIONS  POOR WORK STANDARDS 119 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • SHORT BREAK 120 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • BIOLOGICAL GROWTH CROSSION CAUSES 121 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Corrosion  The destruction of metal by chemical or electrochemical with its Environment is called corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 122
  • Battery Analogy  Anode  Cathode  Electrical Circuit  Metal lost at anode Corrosion e - Electrolyte Anode Cathode Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 123
  • Factors Influencing Corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 124 pH Temperature Dissolved Solids System Deposits Water Velocity Microbiological Growth
  • Factors Effecting Corrosion  Water Chemistry eg Cl;NH3;S;O2  Ammonia increases the corrosion of copper and alloys of copper by complexing the copper present in the protective layer of copper oxide or copper carbonate  pH - Optimum pH 6.0 - 9.0  Water Velocity Erosion Impingement Cavitation  Stress Corrosion Cracking  De alloying  Pitting (Under Deposit; H2S; Cl) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 125
  • Base Metal Localized Pitting Attack Water Original Thickness Pitting Corrosion  Metal removed at same rate but from a much smaller area  Anode very small  Often occurs under deposits or weak points  Leads to rapid metal failure Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 126
  • 100 10 0 5 6 7 8 9 10 CorrosionRate,RelativeUnits pH Corrosion Vs. pH Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 127
  • Corrosion Vs. Temperature Corrosion Rate Temperature In general, for every 18 F in water temperature, chemical reaction rates double. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 128
  • Methods To Control Corrosion  Use corrosion resistant alloys: $  Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale  Apply protective coatings: Integrity  Use ―sacrificial anodes‖: Zn/Mg  Apply chemical corrosion inhibitors Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 129
  • Erosion Corrosion Corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 130
  • Corrosion 4Fe  4Fe2+ + 8e- 2O2 Anode 8OH- 8e- + 2O2 + 4H2O  8OH- 4H2O Cathode 4Fe2+ + 8OH-  4Fe(OH)2 O2 + 4Fe(OH)2  2Fe2O3 + 4H2O O2 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 131
  • Corrosion FACTORS PROMOTING CORROSION  Impurities/inclusion in the metal  Localized stress  Discontinuities in metal surface  Low pH conditions  Low flow velocities  Differences in  Temperature  Oxygen  Salt Concentration (Significantly Effected by Water Borne Deposits) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 132
  • MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 133
  • Microbiological Growth  Water treatment is about managing three fouling processes...  Corrosion  Scale  Microbio The microbial fouling process is...  The most complex  The least understood  The hardest to measure and monitor  Controlled using the least desirable, most expensive, & potentially hazardous products Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 134
  • Bacteria Sears Tower  Bacteria extremely small  Compared to a human, a bacteria is like a grain of sand to the Sears Tower  Size allows many (millions) to fit into a small volume of water... Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 135
  • Types of Bacteria 4. Nitrifying 5. Denitrifying 3. Iron Depositing 2. Anaerobic Corrosive 1. Slime Forming Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 136
  • Bacteria Slime Formers Iron DepositingAnaerobic Typical Rods Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 137
  • MicrobiologyThe most prevalent problems in Pre- treatment water systems are related to microbiolo gy Proteins Phospholipids Hydrophilic groups Hydrophobic groups Phospholipid molecules Glycocalyx Outer Membrane DNA Periplasmic Space Flagellum Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Proteins Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 138
  • Biohazardous Infectious Material Characteristics Contact with microbiological agents (e.g., bacteria, viruses, fungi and their toxins) may cause illness or death Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Biohazardous Infectious Material Precautions Wear the recommended protective equipment and clothing Work with these materials in designated areas Disinfect area after handling Wash hands after handling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Basic Growth Requirements Inorganic Nutrients Food Source Gaseous Element Temperature pH Interaction with other Microorganisms Bio Fouling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 141
  • Fouling FOULING is the accumulation of solid material, other than scale, in a way that hampers the operation of equipment or contributes to its deterioration 142 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Fouling  Factors which influence fouling are:  Water Characteristics  Water Temperature  Water Flow Velocity  Microbiological Growth  Corrosion  Process Contamination  Environmental (i.e. atmospheric pollutants) Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 143
  • Bio Fouling  Types of Microorganisms  BACTERIA - need/ do not need Oxygen • Aerobic - Slime and Spore former • Anaerobic - SRB, Clostridia, etc. • Iron bacteria - Gallionella • Nitrification - Nitrosomas, Nitrobacter  ALGAE - need light, food source  FUNGI - destroys wood, reinforces deposits  PROTOZOA - feed on bacteria/algae Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 144
  • Slime and there prevention  Slime occurs to gather with corrosion and scale  Slime is caused by the adhesion and accumulation of soft muddy material.  It formed by mixing micro Organism like bacteria , fungi , algae .  It grow by utilizing the dissolved nutrient in water with inorganic mater like mud , sand, and dirt Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 145
  • Slime Slime 146 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Microbiologically induced Under Deposit Corrosion 1. Bioactivity generates CO2 and/or H2S which lowers the pH underneath the Deposit 2. Iron Corrodes and tubercle grows as pitting corrosion develops 1 2 Bio Fouling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 147
  • To Prevent Corrosion Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 148
  • Bio Fouling Control  General Methods for Bio Fouling Control  Prevent contact with direct sunlight wherever possible  Disinfect make-up water  Regularly maintain and disinfect filters  Application of Biocides Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 149
  • Economic Impact of Fouling  Decreased plant efficiency  Reduction in productivity  Production schedule delays  Increased downtime for maintenance  Cost of equipment repair or replacement  Reduced effectiveness of chemical inhibitors Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 150
  • Preventing Fouling Prevention  Good control of makeup Pretreatment  Good control of corrosion, scale, & microbiology growth Reduction  Increase backwashing frequency  Side stream filter Ongoing Control  Back flushing, Air rumbling  Chemical treatment Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 151
  • Charge Reinforcement Mechanism Slightly anionic suspended particle Suspended Solid which has adsorbed highly anionic chemical Highly Anionic Chemical  Anionic polymers increase strength of charge already present on suspended solids  Keep particles small enough so they do not settle out Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 152
  • Fouling Control Charge Reinforcement Dispersants: adsorb onto particles, creating very highly charged surfaces, which repel each other because of like charges. + +Fe(OH)2 + Fe(OH)2 + Fe(OH)3 o + + + Fe(OH)2 + Fe(OH)3 o Fe(OH)2 + Fouling Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 153
  • OXIDIZING BIOCIDES Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 154
  • Oxidizing Biocides  Penetrate microorganism’s cell wall and burn-up the internals of the organism  Effective against all types of bacteria  No microorganism resistant to oxidizers  Kill everything given sufficient concentration levels & contact time Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 155
  • Oxidizing Biocides  Broad-spectrum effectiveness makes oxidizers primary biocide in large cooling water applications Oxidizers  Gas Chlorine  Bleach  Acti-Brom  BCDMH  Stabilized Bromine Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 156
  • Oxidizing Biocides  Biocide effectiveness pH dependent  Cl2  HOCl & OCl-  Br  HOBr & OBr-  HOCl/HOBr Biocidal  @ pH=8.0 HOCl: 22% HOBr: 83%  Bromine more biocidal HOClorHOBr 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 pH 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 100 OCl-orOBr- HOCl HOBr 80 90 Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 157
  • Before Biodispersant After Biodispersant Biodispersants Do not kill -- Penetrate deposits and increase the effectiveness of oxidizing & non-oxidizing biocides. Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 158
  • Monitoring & Control Free or Total Pillow Sample DPD DR5000 Spectrophotometer or Color Wheel ppm Oxidant Residual (as Cl2) Oxidant Determination Test Diethyl Phenylenediamine (DPD) Bio Fouling Monitoring Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 159
  •  BENEFITS  Rapid Program Adjustment To Maintain Optimum Performance  Determine The Most Effective Biocide Program  Maximize Cost-Performance  Maximize Technical Results  Minimize Environmental Impact COST PERFORMANCE ENVIRONMENT TRA-CIDE Bio Fouling Monitoring Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 160
  • 161 Any QUESTION Thanks 4ur Attention Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah
  • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 162 Shuaibah IWEP III RO EXPANSION Shuaibah IWEP III RO EXPANSION Name & ID____________________ Written Check Plant Chemistry (RO Pretreatment System) Date: 12-11-2012 Time: 20 min Marks: 20 Note: 1) General portion of the paper has to be attempted by all trainees. General Chemistry Q 1) Select the appropriate answer. (15 marks) i. How many chemical used in pretreatment system. H2S04 Fecl3 Polydactyl amide All of the above ii. The neutral pH of water represent by 10 5 7 None of the above iii. Danger range of chlorine is 5 ppm 18 ppm 25 ppm i. Water is only substance that exist in three state ------------------------------------ ------------------------------------ ------------------------------------ ii. How many types of hardness write name -------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- iii. sources of water write any five name of -------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- iv. Coagulation is the process of pretreatment system true / falls v. Pretreatment process three step process true / falls vi. is the symbol of hazards true / falls vii. is the symbol of corrosive true / falls Q 1) Pick up the correct answer: (5 marks) i. Hypochlorite use for __________ ( Disinfection , Infection ) ii. The MSDS Stand for _____________(Material safety data sheet , material safely demand sheet) iii. PPE Stand for ________ (Personal power equipment , Personal protective equipment ) iv. For neutralization of chlorine used________(Sodium meta bi sulphite , Antiscalent ) v. H2SO4 Skin contact may produce _________ ( burn , smell ) i. Water contains some impurities which are Dissolved inorganic compound Dissolve Organic Compound Dissolve gasses Micro Organism All of the above ii. Settling time of bacteria in the water is 30 minutes 1 hrs 12 hrs 35 hrs iii. Ferric chloride ( Fecl3 ) used for pretreatment process as a Coagulant aid Coagulant Cationic Coagulant All of above iv. Factor infusing corrosion pH Temperature Dissolved Solids Microbiological Growth All of above v. The destruction of metal by mechanical is called Corrosion Erosion Pitting Corrosion Non of above
  • Umar Farooq Senior Chemist NOMAC SIWEP Shuaibah Jeddah 163