Marketing Management, 12/e A South Asian Perspective 21  Tapping Into  Global Markets
Chapter Questions <ul><li>What factors should a company review before deciding to go abroad? </li></ul><ul><li>How can com...
Global Firm A firm that operates in more than one country and captures R&D, production, logistical, marketing, and  financ...
Major Decisions in  International Marketing Deciding whether to go Deciding which markets to enter Deciding how to enter D...
Four Stages of Internationalization No regular export activities Export via independent agents Establish sales subsidiarie...
Regional Free Trade Zones <ul><li>European Union </li></ul><ul><li>NAFTA </li></ul><ul><li>MERCOSUL </li></ul><ul><li>APEC...
Five Modes of Entry into  Foreign Markets <ul><li>Indirect exporting </li></ul><ul><li>Direct exporting </li></ul><ul><li>...
Direct Exporting Methods <ul><li>Domestic-based export department </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas sales branch or subsidiary </...
Table 21.1 Global Marketing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Lower marketing cost...
Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Individualism vs. collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>High vs. lower power distance </li></ul><ul><...
International Product and Communication Strategies <ul><li>Straight extension </li></ul><ul><li>Communication adaptation <...
Price Choices <ul><li>Set a uniform price everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Set a market-based price in each country </li></ul>...
Whole-Channel Concept for International Marketing Seller International headquarters Channels between nations Channels with...
Global Organization Strategies <ul><li>World as single market </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational </li></ul><ul><li>Glocal </l...
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  1. 1. Marketing Management, 12/e A South Asian Perspective 21 Tapping Into Global Markets
  2. 2. Chapter Questions <ul><li>What factors should a company review before deciding to go abroad? </li></ul><ul><li>How can companies evaluate and select specific foreign markets to enter? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major ways of entering a foreign market? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent must the company adapt its products and marketing program to each foreign country? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the company manage and organize its international activities? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Global Firm A firm that operates in more than one country and captures R&D, production, logistical, marketing, and financial advantages in its costs and reputation that are not available to purely domestic competitors.
  4. 4. Major Decisions in International Marketing Deciding whether to go Deciding which markets to enter Deciding how to enter Deciding on the marketing program Deciding on the marketing organization
  5. 5. Four Stages of Internationalization No regular export activities Export via independent agents Establish sales subsidiaries Establish production facilities abroad
  6. 6. Regional Free Trade Zones <ul><li>European Union </li></ul><ul><li>NAFTA </li></ul><ul><li>MERCOSUL </li></ul><ul><li>APEC </li></ul>
  7. 7. Five Modes of Entry into Foreign Markets <ul><li>Indirect exporting </li></ul><ul><li>Direct exporting </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Joint venture </li></ul><ul><li>Direct investment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Direct Exporting Methods <ul><li>Domestic-based export department </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas sales branch or subsidiary </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling export sales representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign-based distributors or agents </li></ul>
  9. 9. Table 21.1 Global Marketing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Lower marketing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Power and scope </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency in brand image </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to leverage </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity of marketing practices </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in consumer needs, wants, usage patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in consumer response to marketing mix </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in brand development process </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Individualism vs. collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>High vs. lower power distance </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine vs. feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Weak vs. strong uncertainty avoidance </li></ul>
  11. 11. International Product and Communication Strategies <ul><li>Straight extension </li></ul><ul><li>Communication adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Product adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Dual adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Product invention </li></ul>
  12. 12. Price Choices <ul><li>Set a uniform price everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Set a market-based price in each country </li></ul><ul><li>Set a cost-based price in each country </li></ul>
  13. 13. Whole-Channel Concept for International Marketing Seller International headquarters Channels between nations Channels within nations Final buyers
  14. 14. Global Organization Strategies <ul><li>World as single market </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational </li></ul><ul><li>Glocal </li></ul>

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