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Marketing Management, 12/e A South Asian Perspective 10  Creating Brand Equity
Chapter Questions <ul><li>What is a brand and how does branding work? </li></ul><ul><li>What is brand equity? </li></ul><u...
Brand A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them,  intended to identify the goods or services of one s...
Attributes of Strong Brands <ul><li>Excels at delivering desired benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Stays relevant </li></ul><ul><...
The Role of Brands <ul><li>Identify the maker </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify product handling </li></ul><ul><li>Organize accou...
Branding Endowing products and services with the power of a brand.
Brand Equity The differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the  marketing of that brand.
Brand Associations <ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable </li></ul>
Marketing Advantages of Strong Brands <ul><li>Improved perceptions of product performance </li></ul><ul><li>Greater loyalt...
Brand Promise The marketer’s vision of what the brand must be and do for Consumers.
Brand Equity Models <ul><li>Brand Asset Valuator </li></ul><ul><li>Aaker Model </li></ul><ul><li>BRANDZ </li></ul><ul><li>...
Drivers of Brand Equity <ul><li>Brand elements </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning transferen...
Brand Elements <ul><li>Brand names </li></ul><ul><li>Slogans </li></ul><ul><li>Characters </li></ul><ul><li>URLs </li></ul...
Brand Element Choice Criteria <ul><li>Memorable </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><...
Slogans <ul><li>Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there </li></ul><ul><li>Just do it </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing runs like...
Measuring Brand Equity <ul><li>Brand audits </li></ul><ul><li>Brand tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Brand valuation </li></ul>
Interbrand’s Brand Equity Formula <ul><li>Brand earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Brand sales </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of sales </...
Managing Brand Equity <ul><li>Brand reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Brand revitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Brand crises </...
Devising a Branding Strategy <ul><li>Develop new brand elements </li></ul><ul><li>Apply existing brand elements </li></ul>...
Branding Terms <ul><li>Brand line </li></ul><ul><li>Brand mix </li></ul><ul><li>Brand extension </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-bran...
Brand Naming <ul><li>Individual names </li></ul><ul><li>Blanket family names </li></ul><ul><li>Separate family names </li>...
Brand Roles in a Brand Portfolio <ul><li>Flankers </li></ul><ul><li>Cash cows </li></ul><ul><li>Low-end entry-level </li><...
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  1. 1. Marketing Management, 12/e A South Asian Perspective 10 Creating Brand Equity
  2. 2. Chapter Questions <ul><li>What is a brand and how does branding work? </li></ul><ul><li>What is brand equity? </li></ul><ul><li>How is brand equity built, measured, and managed? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the important decisions in developing a branding strategy? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Brand A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.
  4. 4. Attributes of Strong Brands <ul><li>Excels at delivering desired benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Stays relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Priced to meet perceptions of value </li></ul><ul><li>Positioned properly </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates consistent brand messages </li></ul><ul><li>Well-designed brand hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Uses multiple marketing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Understands consumer-brand relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by organization </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors sources of brand equity </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Role of Brands <ul><li>Identify the maker </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify product handling </li></ul><ul><li>Organize accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Offer legal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Signify quality </li></ul><ul><li>Create barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as a competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Secure price premium </li></ul>
  6. 6. Branding Endowing products and services with the power of a brand.
  7. 7. Brand Equity The differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand.
  8. 8. Brand Associations <ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable </li></ul>
  9. 9. Marketing Advantages of Strong Brands <ul><li>Improved perceptions of product performance </li></ul><ul><li>Greater loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Less vulnerable to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Less vulnerable to crises </li></ul><ul><li>Larger margins </li></ul><ul><li>Inelastic consumer response to price increases </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic consumer response to price decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Greater trade cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in effectiveness of IMC </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Brand extension opportunities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Brand Promise The marketer’s vision of what the brand must be and do for Consumers.
  11. 11. Brand Equity Models <ul><li>Brand Asset Valuator </li></ul><ul><li>Aaker Model </li></ul><ul><li>BRANDZ </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Resonance </li></ul>
  12. 12. Drivers of Brand Equity <ul><li>Brand elements </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning transference </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brand Elements <ul><li>Brand names </li></ul><ul><li>Slogans </li></ul><ul><li>Characters </li></ul><ul><li>URLs </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul>
  14. 14. Brand Element Choice Criteria <ul><li>Memorable </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Transferable </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Protectible </li></ul>
  15. 15. Slogans <ul><li>Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there </li></ul><ul><li>Just do it </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing runs like a Deere </li></ul><ul><li>Help is just around the corner </li></ul><ul><li>Save 15% or more in 15 minutes or less </li></ul><ul><li>We try harder </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll pick you up </li></ul><ul><li>Nextel – Done </li></ul><ul><li>Zoom Zoom </li></ul><ul><li>I’m lovin’ it </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation at work </li></ul><ul><li>This Bud’s for you </li></ul><ul><li>Always low prices </li></ul>
  16. 16. Measuring Brand Equity <ul><li>Brand audits </li></ul><ul><li>Brand tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Brand valuation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interbrand’s Brand Equity Formula <ul><li>Brand earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Brand sales </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of sales </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Remuneration of capital charge </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Brand strength </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership (25%) </li></ul><ul><li>Stability (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Market (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic spread (25%) </li></ul><ul><li>Trend (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Support (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Protection (5%) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Managing Brand Equity <ul><li>Brand reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Brand revitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Brand crises </li></ul>
  19. 19. Devising a Branding Strategy <ul><li>Develop new brand elements </li></ul><ul><li>Apply existing brand elements </li></ul><ul><li>Use a combination of old and new </li></ul>
  20. 20. Branding Terms <ul><li>Brand line </li></ul><ul><li>Brand mix </li></ul><ul><li>Brand extension </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-brand </li></ul><ul><li>Parent brand </li></ul><ul><li>Family brand </li></ul><ul><li>Line extension </li></ul><ul><li>Category extension </li></ul><ul><li>Branded variants </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed product </li></ul><ul><li>Brand dilution </li></ul><ul><li>Brand portfolio </li></ul>
  21. 21. Brand Naming <ul><li>Individual names </li></ul><ul><li>Blanket family names </li></ul><ul><li>Separate family names </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate name/individual name combo </li></ul>
  22. 22. Brand Roles in a Brand Portfolio <ul><li>Flankers </li></ul><ul><li>Cash cows </li></ul><ul><li>Low-end entry-level </li></ul><ul><li>High-end prestige </li></ul>
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