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  • Presented by: Umair Bukhari
  • Muhammad Umair Bukhari Engr.umair.bukhari@gmail.com www.bzuiam.webs.com 03136050151
  •  It is a tool using a jet of water at high velocity and pressure The process is same as water erosion found in nature but is greatly accelerated and concentrated. True cold cutting process –no HAZ, no mechanical stresses and environmental hazards. Not limited to machining –It has food industrial applications. They are fast, flexible, reasonably precise.
  •  It can cut almost everything, with greater efficiency and productivity. It is one of the fastest growing major machine tool processes in the world due to its versatility and ease of operation. Water jets cut accurately, reduced scrap- saving money through greater material utilization. As it is software oriented, we get correct shape, dimensions and size.
  •  Dr. Franz in 1950’s first studied water cutting for forestry and wood cutting. 1979 Dr. Mohamed Hashish added abrasive particles to increase cutting force and ability to cut hard materials including steel, glass and concrete. First commercial use was in automotive industry to cut glass in 1983. Soon after, adopted by aerospace industry for cutting high-strength materials like stainless steel and titanium as well as composites like carbon fiber.
  •  High pressure (60,000 psi), which when bombarded on the work piece erodes the material. A high velocity water jet when directed at a target in such a way that, its velocity in virtually reduced to zero on striking the surface. Because of this water jet will make a hole in the material if the pressure is high enough. Many variables such as nozzle orifice diameter, water pressure, cutting feed rate and the stand distance affect the performance.
  • Different engineering components machined with AWJ, shows the obtainable accuracy and precisionStainless steel plate(50 mm thick) machinedwith AWJ (Photograph Courtesy – Omax Corporation, USA)
  •  The two types of water jets  Pure water jet  abrasive water jet. A pure water jet is used to cut soft materials, and within just 2 minutes the very same water jet can be transformed into an abrasive water jet to cut hard materials by adding abrasives to it. Pure water jet uses pure pressurized water whereas abrasives water jet uses abrasives like Aluminum oxide, silicon carbide and garnet.
  •  Schematic diagram of pure water jet cutting:1. Water under pressure2. Water nozzle3. Pure water jet4. Work piece5. Cut width (kerf)
  •  Pure Water jet is the original water cutting method. In which pure water is compressed at very high pressure & released through a narrow opening. It forms water jet, which comes out at the speed of up to 850 m/s The largest uses for pure water jet cutting are disposable diapers, tissue paper, and automotive interiors . Provides Very thin stream (0.004 to 0.010 inch in diameter is the common range) . Very little material loss due to precise cutting.
  •  Non-heat cutting ,Usually cuts very quickly. Able to cut soft, light materials(e.g., fiber glass insulation up to 24" thick). Used to cut soft, thin, or porous material  Silicone  VCT (tile)  Foam  Cork  Teflon  Composites  Plastic
  •  Schematic diagram of abrasive water jet cutting:1. Water under pressure2. Water nozzle3. Water jet4. Abrasive feed (unpressurised)5. Mixing chamber (vacuum chamber)6. Abrasive nozzle (focusing tube)7. Water jet with abrasive8. Cut width (kerf)
  •  In the abrasive water jet, the water jet stream accelerates abrasive particles and those particles,not the water, erode the material. The abrasive Water jet is hundreds of times more powerful than a pure Water jet. Extremely versatile process, No Heat Affected Zones, No mechanical stresses Easy to program Thin stream (0.020 to 0.050 inch in diameter) 10 inch thick cutting, Little material loss due to cutting Quickly switch from pure water jet to abrasive water jet.
  •  The applications and materials, which are generally machined using WJ and AWJ, are given below: Application Materials • Paint removal • Steels • Cleaning • Non-ferrous alloys • Cutting soft materials • Ti alloys, Ni- alloys • Cutting frozen meat • Polymers • Textile, Leather industry • Honeycombs • Surgery • Metal Matrix Composite • Cutting • Ceramic Matrix Composite • Drilling • Concrete • Turning • Stone – Granite • Glass Fiber Metal • Wood • Reinforced plastics
  •  There are no heat affected zones (HAZ)  The material does not get warped, discolored or hardened Ability to manufacture burr-free parts  No jagged edges or burrs Near net shape cutting  Eliminates the need for secondary operations Can cut through thick materials  Up to 12” in thickness
  •  Cheaper than other processes. Cut any material. (mild steel, copper, brass, aluminum; brittle materials like glass, ceramic, quartz, stone) Make all sorts of shapes with only one tool. Unlike machining or grinding, water jet cutting does not produce any dust or particles that are harmful if inhaled.
  •  Leaves a smooth finish, thus reducing secondary operations. Clean cutting process without gasses or oils. Water jet cutting can be easily used to produce prototype parts very efficiently. An operator can program the dimensions of the part into the control station, and the water jet will cut the part out exactly as programmed. Get nice edge quality from different materials.
  •  A limited number of materials can be cut economically. While it is possible to cut tool steels, and other hard materials, the cutting rate has to be greatly reduced. Another disadvantage is that very thick parts can not be cut with water jet cutting and still hold dimensional accuracy. If the part is too thick, the jet may dissipate some, and cause it to cut on a diagonal. Taper is also a problem with water jet cutting in very thick materials. Taper is when the jet exits Water jet lag the part at a different angle than it enters the part, and can cause dimensional inaccuracy.
  • Water jets vs. Lasers cutting Abrasive water jets can machine many materials that lasers cannot. (Reflective materials in particular, such as Aluminum and Copper. Uniformity of material is not very After laser cutting important to a water jet. Water jets do not heat your part. Thus there is no thermal distortion or hardening of the material. Water jets are safer. Maintenance on the abrasive jet nozzle is simpler than that of a laser. After water jet cutting
  • Plasma cutting Vs. Water jet cutting If the parts require no mechanical post-processing, for example, if they only need to be welded or they are simple parts, plasma cutting is more cost effective. If the parts are required post processing, or if aluminum or other materials are used that are not well suited to plasma cutting, then water jet cutting is usually the most cost effective option.
  • Flame cutting Vs. Water jet cutting  If the cutting edge quality of flame cutting fulfills the requirements, then flame cutting is more cost- effective than water jet cutting.  Water jet cutting provides benefits with respect to the surface, because depending on the process there are no weld spatters and no burr formation.  The part can also be processed further without thermal heat treatment and straightening.
  • Water jets vs. Electrical discharge machining Water jets are much faster than EDM Water jets machine has a wider variety of materials (virtually any material). Uniformity of material is not very important to a water jet. Water jets do not heat the surface of what they machine. water jets require less setup and can cut even non conducting materials. water jets can be considered to be like super-fast EDM machines with less precision.
  • 20 mm mild steel,cut with the abrasive water jet (left) And the laser jet (right)
  •  Water jet cutting is a cold process, so there is no structural influence. The heat transfer during laser, plasma and flame cutting changes the structure
  •  Nowadays, every manufacturing process is being re-evaluated in terms of its impact on the environment. For example, use of conventional coolants in machining and grinding is being looked upon critically from the point of view of its impact on environment. The environmental issues relevant to AWJM are,  water recycling  spent water disposal  chip recovery  abrasive recovery and reuse Environmental issues and concerns have lead the researchers to use such mediums and abrasives that do not require disposal, recycling or lead to pollution. Work is going on in the area of high-pressure cryogenic jet machining .
  • In Cryogenic Abrasive JetMachining, liquid nitrogen replaces thewater phase and dry ice crystals (solid CO2 crystals) replace theabrasive phase leading to no needof disposal or waste generation. The removed work material inthe form of microchips can becollected much easily reducingthe chances of environmentaldegradation.
  •  Relatively new technology has caught on quickly and is replacing century-old methods for machining. Used not only in typical machining applications, but food and soft-goods industries As material and pump technology advances faster cutting rates, longer component life and tighter tolerances will be achievable Gave us the way for new machining processes that embrace simplicity and have a small environmental impact
  • Abrasive Waterjet
  • 9.25” AluminumRed Tinted Glass