Plutonium
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Plutonium Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Muhammad Umair Bukhari Engr.umair.bukhari@gmail.com www.bzuiam.webs.com 03136050151
  • 2.  Transuranic radioactive chemical element  Symbol Pu Atomic Number 94  It is an actinide  Appearance silvery-gray  A byproduct of nuclear fission in reactors where some of the neutrons released by the fission process convert uranium-238 nuclei into plutonium.
  • 3.  Plutonium-239 and plutonium-241 are both fissile, (meaning the nuclei of their atoms can split when bombarded by thermal neutrons, releasing energy, gamma radiation and more neutrons.)
  • 4.  Discovery: 1940  Dr.Glenn T.Seaborg, Edwin.M McMillan, J. W.kennedy, and A.C.Wahl  University of California Berkeley  Name Origin: After the planet Pluto  Crystal Structure: Monoclinic
  • 5.  Pu-236 2.87 yrs  Pu-237 45.2 days  Pu-238 87.7 years  Pu-239 24100.0 years  Pu-240 6560.0 years  Pu-241 14.4 years  Pu-242 375000.0 years  Pu-243 4.95 hours (Min.)  Pu-244 8.0E7 years (Max.)  Pu-245 10.5 hours  Pu-246 10.85 days
  • 6.  During World War II the U.S. government established the Manhattan Project, which was tasked with developing an atomic bomb  The first production reactor that made plutonium-239 was the X-10 Graphite Reactor. It went online in 1943  The original Gun Type plutonium weapon, code-named “Thin Man",  Soon changed to the more complicated implosion device, code-named “Fat Man."
  • 7.  Explosives  Plutonium-239 fissile component in Nuclear Weapons , due to its ease of fission.  The “Fat Man"–type plutonium bombs produced during the Manhattan Project used plutonium to obtain efficiency.  Thus only 6.2 kg of plutonium was needed for an explosive yields equivalent to 20 kilotons of TNT.  Hypothetically, as little as 4 kg of plutonium (and maybe even less) could be used to make a single atomic bomb using very sophisticated assembly designs.
  • 8.  The isotope Plutonium-238 has a half-life of 87.74 years.  Emits a large amount of thermal Energy with low levels of both gamma rays/particles .  One Kilogram of the isotope can generate about 570 watts of heat.  These characteristics make it well-suited for electrical power generation.  Used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators
  • 9. Toxicity  Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are accumulate in Bone marrow.  Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested.  The risk of Lung Cancer increases radiation dose inhaled plutonium exceeds 400 mSv.
  • 10.  Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided.  In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which may ignite in air at room temperature.