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  1. 1. Muhammad Umair Bukhari 03136050151
  2. 2.  Has a charge of +2 Is referred to by two names  Glucinium – from the Greek word sweet  Beryllium – named after the material beryl in which it is most commonly found. Pure beryllium only occurs naturally in small amounts, more commonly found as a compound. Most common ore of beryllium is beryl (Be3(Al2(SiO3)) Found in the earths crust, 2 to 10 ppm (parts per million). This means it is relatively common metal.
  3. 3.  State at room temperature - solid Steel greyish-white surface Density – 1.85 g.cmˉ³ Non-magnetic Melting point - 1287°C Boiling point - 2469°C Heat capacity – 16.443 J-mol ˉ ¹.K ˉ ¹ Excellent thermal conductor Many of its salts display a sweet taste
  4. 4.  When left exposed beryllium will quickly react with oxygen to form beryllium oxide. This BeO from the reaction coats the metal with a layer which prevents further oxidization. Reacts with acids to form water and hydrogen gas Does however, resist attack by nitric acid. Solubility of beryllium and its salts vary  Beryllium chloride, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate are all soluble BeCl2, BeF2, Be(NO3)2, Be3(PO4)2 and BeSO4.  Other beryllium compounds are either insoluble or slightly soluble Has one naturally occurring isotope and six other radioactive isotopes. These isotopes have no commercial use. ▪ Radioactive isotopes are ones that break apart and give off some form of radiation. These isotopes are produced when very small particles are fired at the atoms.
  5. 5.  Extensively used in X-ray machines. Thin sheets filter out visible light and only allow x- rays to be detected. Nuclear industry as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Also used in nuclear weapons as a shell to surround the plutonium. Used in defense and airspace industries. These include high-speed aircraft, missile space vehicles and communication satellites. Liquid fueled rockets have nozzles of pure beryllium. In telecommunication, tools of beryllium are used to tune highly magnetic klystrons. Hardening agent in alloys.  Most commonly beryllium-copper alloys. Three quarters of beryllium produced goes towards this process. This material has high electrical/thermal conductivity, high strength/hardness, non-magnetic and good corrosion/fatigue resistance. Used in spot-welding electrodes, springs, non-sparking tools and electrical contacts.  Beralcast (alloy of beryllium and aluminium) used in helicopters and guidance systems as it is 3 times as stiff yet 25% lighter than aluminium.
  6. 6.  Widely used in jewelry.  Two popular gemstones, emeralds and aquamarines, are in fact beryl that have impurities in them. Traces of chromium result in a brilliant green, and iron as an impurity results in beautiful blues.  Can also be found as a tie tack or clip. Used to be used in florescent lighting tubes (use was discontinued due to health risks to workers) Used for mirrors and lenses in the James Webb Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope, as the mirrors will have to face temperatures of -240 °C. The beryllium doesn’t contract and deform as much as glass when presented with these temperatures.James Webb Space Telescope
  7. 7.  Nuclear spin 3/2- Large scattering cross-section for high energy neutrons 6 barns (defined as 10−28 m2 ) Works as neutron reflector and neutron moderator 9Be undergoes (n,2n) neutron reaction to produce 8Be which breaks into alpha particles It is a neutron multiplier, releasing more neutrons than it absorbs Beryllium also releases neutrons under bombardment by gamma rays
  8. 8.  as reflector material in nuclear weapons  Surrounds spherical plutonium pit  Is surrounded by high explosives  Beryllium liner acts as1.Reflector2.Tamper3.Generator
  9. 9.  A medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons  Turning them into thermal neutrons  Capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction  Use of beryllium is limited because:1.It is expensive2.toxic
  10. 10.  Powder metallurgy” techniques are used manufacturing different designs of “beryllium” These techniques include  HIP  CIP
  11. 11. EXTRUSION is a conventional approach to the creation of thick-walled  beryllium tubes &  shapes. Extrusion provides consistent mechanical properties, dimensions and tolerances. Sections are made to dimensions that are well within commercial tolerances, and mechanical properties are superior to those of hot-pressed block in the direction of metal flow. Directional properties are produced in varying degrees as a function of crystallographic orientation.