Clauses & phrases


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Clauses & phrases

  1. 1. Clauses & Phrases PREPARED BY UMAIR
  2. 2. Clauses & Phrases
  3. 3. Clauses
  4. 4. Cluster of words that contain: subject + verb  I am Standing.  He reached university.  He is laughing. Clause
  5. 5. Two or more clauses in a sentence  I am Standing.  He is laughing.  I am happy, because I won a prize.  I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology, because he wants to become a doctor. Clause
  6. 6. Phrase  I am standing near a table.  He reached university in time.  He is laughing at a joker.
  7. 7. Clause INDEPENDENT Dependent Noun Adjective Adverb
  8. 8. Subject + verb = complete thought  He is wearing a shirt.  I like Chinese rice.  I bought a computer. Examples
  9. 9.  He is wearing a shirt which look very nice.  I like Chinese rice which tastes good.  I bought a computer that cost is 15000. Examples Subject + verb + subordinating conjunction
  10. 10. Definition:- “A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb”. Example:- He likes Chinese rice which tastes good. DEPENDENT CLAUSE
  11. 11. On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate clauses can be divided in to following types Noun Clause Adjective Clause. Adverb Clause TYPES
  12. 12. “A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun clause.” A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence. What he did made a problem for his family. Noun Clause:- Example:-
  13. 13. A noun clause starts with words “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever, whomever”. Examples:- Whatever you learn will help you in future. (noun clause as a subject) What you said made me laugh. (noun clause as a subject) He knows that he will pass the test. (noun clause as an object) Now I realize what he would have thought. (noun clause as an object)
  14. 14. Adjective Clause:- “A dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called adjective clause.” Example:- He wears a shirt which looks nice. Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or non-restrictive clause.
  15. 15. “A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun”. “A non-restrictive clause tells us something about preceding noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun”. Restrictive Clauses:- Non-restrictive Clauses:-
  16. 16. •The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (restrictive clause) •The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed the test. (non-restrictive clause) Example:-
  17. 17. “A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called adverb clause” It modifies(describes) the situation in main clause in terms of “time, frequency (how often), cause and effect, contrast, condition, intensity (to what extent).” Adverb Clause :-
  18. 18. Examples:- Don’t go before he comes. He takes medicine because he is ill. You are safe as long as you drive carefully. Time: when, whenever, since, Cause and effect: because, since, Contrast: although, even Condition: If, unless, only if,
  19. 19. Phrases
  20. 20. Definition Of Phrase A phrase is a collection of words that may have nouns or verbs, but it does not have a subject doing a verb.
  21. 21. Characteristics of Phrases  Mostly Phrases do not have subject and a verb  E.G  on the way  Under the table etc.  Phrases may have Subject or a Verb but not at a same point in time, means Phrase cannot have a subject, doing a verb.  E.g.  leaving behind the dog (verb but no Subject)  smashing into a fence (verb but no Subject)  A man on the roof (Contains Subject but not verb)
  22. 22.  The DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CLAUSE and a phrase is that a clause consists of both subject and verb, but a phrase lacks a subject and verb.  Phrase Is not a complete sentence it does not convey a proper meaning. Phrase is a part of sentence. Normally phrase and clause combine together to make a complete sentence.  Example He reached school in time. They are singing in a loud voice. Characteristics of Phrases (Cont.) Phrase Clause
  23. 23. TYPES OF PHRASE Noun Phrase Prepositional Phrase Adverb Phrase Adjective Phrase Absolute Phrase Infinite Phrase Participle Phrase Gerund Phrase
  24. 24. Noun Phrase  A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words (usually modifiers and determiners) which modify the noun.  Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers (the modifiers can be after or before noun)  Examples  He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/object)  The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/subject)
  25. 25. Prepositional phrase.  A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition (noun or pronoun) and may also consist of other modifiers.  E.G.  On a table,  near a wall,  in the room,
  26. 26. Prepositional phrase (cont.)  A single sentence may also contain two or three prepositional phrases
  27. 27. Examples Allama Iqbal was a man having great wisdom. The king lives in a palace made of white marble.
  28. 28. Adverb phrases An adverb phrase is a group of words that performs the function of an adverb. an adverb is a word used to qualify any part of speech except a noun or pronoun. She replied politely. (politely is an adverb)
  29. 29. Examples She replied in a polite manner. He works without considering his health.
  30. 30. Examples
  31. 31. TYPES OF PHRASES Participle Phrase Gerund Phrase Infinitive Phrase Absolute Phrase
  32. 32. A participle is a type of verbal. A participle acts as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Participle act as an adjective and end in ing -ed-en- d-t-n  Present participle end in ing  Past participle end in ed – en -n –d -t Participle
  33. 33. A participle phrase is an adjective phrase that starts with a participle. It usually follows the noun (or pronoun) which it modifies. A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the participle, such as
  34. 34.  Removing his coat , Jack rushed to the river.  Is that Arthur running for the bus?  We saw a car, damaged in a car accident.  Children interested in music early develop strong intellectual skills. Examples
  35. 35. Gerund Gerund is a verb that ends in ing and used as a verbal noun It performs the function of both noun and verb A gerund can be used both as as an object and subject of the sentense
  36. 36. Examples: Dancing is enjoyable and creative vocation He loves eating chocolates.
  37. 37. A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence. A gerund phrase is a group of words that consist of a gerund ,object and modifiers. Gerund Object Modifiers Gerund Phrase Gerund Phrase
  38. 38. An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive [to + simple form of the verb]. It will include objects and/or modifiers. Examples : To smash a spider To kick the ball past the dazed goalie Infinitive phrases can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
  39. 39.  He likes to read books. (As noun/object)  To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun/subject)  He shouted to inform people about fire. (As adverb, modifies verb shout)  He made a plan to buy a car. (As adjective, modifies noun plan)
  40. 40. An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any accompanying modifiers or objects. NOUN + PARTICIPLE + OPTIONAL MODIFIER(S) AND/OR OBJECT(S) Examples: Legs quivering Her arms folded across her chest, Professor Hill warned the class about the penalties of plagiarism. He looks sad, his face expressing worry. Absolute Phrase