Cluster of words that contain:
subject + verb
I am Standing.
He reached university.
He is laughing.
Two or more clauses in a sentence
I am Standing.
He is laughing.
I am happy, because I won a prize.
I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology,
because he wants to become a doctor.
I am standing near a table.
He reached university in time.
He is laughing at a joker.
Subject + verb = complete thought
He is wearing a shirt.
I like Chinese rice.
I bought a computer.
He is wearing a shirt which look very nice.
I like Chinese rice which tastes good.
I bought a computer that cost is 15000.
Subject + verb + subordinating conjunction
“A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a
complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or
He likes Chinese rice which tastes good.
On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate clauses can be divided in to
“A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun
A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence.
What he did made a problem for his family.
A noun clause starts with words “that, what, whatever, who, whom, whoever,
Whatever you learn will help you in future. (noun clause as a
What you said made me laugh. (noun clause as a
He knows that he will pass the test. (noun clause as an
Now I realize what he would have thought. (noun clause as an
“A dependent clause that functions as an
adjective in a sentence is called adjective clause.”
He wears a shirt which looks nice.
Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause
or non-restrictive clause.
“A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun
“A non-restrictive clause tells us something about preceding
noun or pronoun but does not limit the meaning of preceding
noun or pronoun”.
•The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (restrictive clause)
•The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed
the test. (non-restrictive clause)
“A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called
It modifies(describes) the situation in main clause in terms of
“time, frequency (how often), cause and effect, contrast,
condition, intensity (to what extent).”
Adverb Clause :-
Don’t go before he comes.
He takes medicine because he is ill.
You are safe as long as you drive carefully.
Time: when, whenever, since,
Cause and effect: because, since,
Contrast: although, even
Condition: If, unless, only if,
Definition Of Phrase
A phrase is a collection of words that may have
nouns or verbs, but it does not have a subject doing
Characteristics of Phrases
Mostly Phrases do not have subject and a verb
on the way
Under the table etc.
Phrases may have Subject or a Verb but not at a same
point in time, means Phrase cannot have a subject,
doing a verb.
leaving behind the dog (verb but no Subject)
smashing into a fence (verb but no Subject)
A man on the roof (Contains Subject but not verb)
The DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CLAUSE and a phrase is that a
clause consists of both subject and verb, but a phrase lacks a
subject and verb.
Phrase Is not a complete sentence it does not convey a proper
meaning. Phrase is a part of sentence. Normally phrase and clause
combine together to make a complete sentence.
He reached school in time.
They are singing in a loud voice.
Characteristics of Phrases (Cont.)
A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words
(usually modifiers and determiners) which modify the noun.
Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers
(the modifiers can be after or before noun)
He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/object)
The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/subject)
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object
of preposition (noun or pronoun) and may also consist
of other modifiers.
On a table,
near a wall,
in the room,
Prepositional phrase (cont.)
A single sentence may also contain two or three prepositional
was a man having
The king lives in
a palace made of
An adverb phrase is a group of words that performs the function of an adverb.
an adverb is a word used to qualify any part of speech except a noun or
She replied politely. (politely is an adverb)
in a polite manner.
without considering his health.
A participle is a type of verbal. A participle acts as
an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun.
Participle act as an adjective and end in ing -ed-en-
Present participle end in ing
Past participle end in ed – en -n –d -t
A participle phrase is an adjective phrase that starts with
a participle. It usually follows the noun (or pronoun)
which it modifies.
A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a
participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or
noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s),
indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or
state expressed in the participle, such as
Removing his coat , Jack rushed to the river.
Is that Arthur running for the bus?
We saw a car, damaged in a car accident.
Children interested in music early develop strong
Gerund is a verb that ends in ing and used as
a verbal noun
It performs the function of both noun and
A gerund can be used both as as an object
and subject of the sentense
Dancing is enjoyable and
He loves eating
A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence. A gerund phrase is
a group of words that consist of a gerund ,object and modifiers.
Gerund Object Modifiers
An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive [to +
simple form of the verb]. It will include objects
To smash a spider
To kick the ball past the dazed goalie
Infinitive phrases can function
as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
He likes to read books.
To earn money is a desire of everyone.
He shouted to inform people about fire.
(As adverb, modifies verb shout)
He made a plan to buy a car.
(As adjective, modifies noun plan)
An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any
accompanying modifiers or objects.
NOUN + PARTICIPLE + OPTIONAL MODIFIER(S) AND/OR OBJECT(S)
Her arms folded across her chest, Professor Hill warned the
class about the penalties of plagiarism.
He looks sad, his face expressing worry.