Chap3_ business reaserch


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  • Chap3_ business reaserch

    2. 2. WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROBLEM? A problem does not necessarily mean that some thing is seriously wrong with a current situation that needs to be rectify immediately. “ Define problem as any situation where a gap exists between the actual and desired ideal state”  Generally speaking a research problem is a situation that needs a solution and for which there are possible solutions. If a situation has no possible solutions then it makes little or no sense expending resources researching it.
    3. 3. WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROBLEM? this statement, “everybody wants to go to heaven but nobody wants to die”. Dying looks like a problem that needs a solution yet there is no possible solution to it. People must die. A research on how people can live forever makes little or no sense.  Take A research problem may be described as a discrepancy between what is and what should to be. It may be also described as the gap in knowledge that needs to be filled.
    4. 4. WHAT IS A PROBLEM STATEMENT? A problem statement is the description of an issue currently existing which needs to be addressed. It provides the context for the research study and generates the questions which the research aims to answer.  The area in which you are interested is called the focus of the inquiry. A good problem statement is just one sentence (with several paragraphs of elaboration). For example it could be: "The frequency of job dismissals is creating fear, anxiety, and a loss of productivity in middle management workers." Systematic research begins with a research problem- begin with a general topic and then narrow it down to a specific statement of the research problem. 
    5. 5. THE PROBLEM: THE HEART OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS The problem is the centre around which the whole research effort turns. Einstein: If I have one hour for solving the problem on which my life is dependent, than I will devote 40 minutes to study the problem, 5 minutes to analyse it, and only 5 minutes to solve it. Well begun is half done --Aristotle, quoting an old proverb Who is able to formulate problem? – a person with large and high quality of knowledge – a creative person able to think, with good memory with large and deep cultural knowledge and with ability to persist in research work despite of serious problems. - a persons with non-conventional thinking
    6. 6. RESEARCH QUESTION A Research Question is a statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied. For example, “What resources are helpful to new and minority drug abuse researchers?” To develop a strong research question from your ideas, you should ask yourself these things: Do I know the field and its literature well? What are the important research questions in my field? What areas need further exploration? Could my study fill a gap? Lead to greater understanding? Has a great deal of research already been conducted in this topic area? Has this study been done before? If so, is there room for improvement? Would funding sources be interested? If you are proposing a service program, is the target community interested? Most importantly, will my study have a significant impact on the field? Is the timing right for this question to be answered? Is it a hot topic, or is it becoming obsolete?
    7. 7. The step wise process  Problem statement is a clear, precise, and brief statement of      the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution. Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. It is logically developed, described and elaborated network of associations among the variables relevant to the problem situation. A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction A hypotheses should not be confused with a theory Data analysis: the data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported. Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the meaning of the data analysis results.
    8. 8. RESEARCH PROCESS A strong research idea should pass the “so what” test. Think about the potential impact of the research you are proposing.  What is the benefit of answering your research question?  Who will it help (and how)?  If you cannot make a ultimate statement about the purpose of your research, it is unlikely to be done/funded/granted. 
    9. 9. RESEARCH PROCESS A research focus should be narrow, not broad-based.  For example, “What can be done to prevent substance abuse?” is too large a question to answer. It would be better to begin with a more focused question such as “What is the relationship between specific early childhood experiences and subsequent substanceabusing behaviors?” 
    10. 10. SAMPLE RESEARCH PROCESS CHART: CREATING RESOURCES FOR DRUG ABUSE RESEARCHERS     Currently, there are few on-online resources available to new and minority drug abuse researchers. Research Question “What resources would be helpful to new and minority drug abuse researchers?” Hypothesis “A grant writing tutorial would be helpful to new and minority drug abuse researchers. Those researchers who utilize an online grant writing tutorial will have higher priority scores on their next grant application than those who do not.” Specific Aim “Conduct a rigorous empirical evaluation of the on-line grant writing tutorial, comparing outcome and process measures from two groups-those with exposure to the tutorial, and those without.”
    11. 11. SAMPLE RESEARCH PROCESS CHART: CREATING RESOURCES FOR DRUG ABUSE RESEARCHERS A well-thought-out and focused research question leads directly into your hypotheses. What predictions would you make about the phenomenon you are examining? This will be the foundation of your application.  Hypotheses are more specific predictions about the nature and direction of the relationship between two variables. For example, “Those researchers who utilize an online grant writing tutorial will have higher priority scores on their next grant application than those who do not.” 
    12. 12. THE RESEARCH PROCESS CHART As a generic reference, the following process can be helpful in refining and concretizing your ideas:  Ask yourself: “Why is this research important? What have other people done? What have they found?”  Based on this information, formulate a specific research question.  Develop a hypothesis/hypotheses that stems from your research question.  Identify the specific aims, that is the steps you are going to take to test your hypothesis. 
    13. 13. RESEARCH PROBLEM  Long-Term Goals:      Why are you doing this research? What are the long-term implications? What will happen after the grant? What other avenues are open to explore? What is the ultimate application or use of the research?
    14. 14. RESEARCH PROBLEM These questions all relate to the long-term goal of your research, which should be an important for the proposal. Again, they should be a logical extension of the research question, hypotheses, and specific aims.  It is also helpful to have a long-term plan for your own career development. Where would you like to see your career go in the next 5 years? How does the research you are proposing relate to that plan? 
    15. 15. RESEARCH PROBLEM  Once you've thought through the key elements of your research questions, hypotheses, specific aims, and research design, you have the ingredients for a concept paper. This is an important tool to help you to organize your thoughts, as well as to promote, disseminate, or get feedback on your ideas
    16. 16. RESEARCH PROBLEM To understand the world around us, the researcher needs to know and understand the definition of the scientific method.  This will be central to the research process and subsequent conclusions drawn from the experiment.  Defining a research problem is the fuel that drives the scientific process, and is the foundation of any research method and experimental design, from true experiment to case study. 
    17. 17. RESEARCH PROBLEM It is one of the first statements made in any research paper and, as well as defining the research area, should include a quick synopsis of how the hypothesis was arrived at.  Operationalization is then used to give some indication of the exact definitions of the variables, and the type of scientific measurements used.  This will lead to the proposal of a viable hypothesis. As an aside, when scientists are putting forward proposals for research funds, the quality of their research problem often makes the difference between success and failure. 
    18. 18. RESEARCH PROBLEM Look at any scientific paper, and you will see the research problem, written almost like a statement of intent.  Defining a research problem is crucial in defining the quality of the answers, and determines the exact research method used  The operational definition is the determining the scalar properties of the variables.  For example, intelligence may be measured with IQ and human responses could be measured with a questionnaire from „1- strongly disagree‟, to „5 – strongly agree‟. 
    19. 19. STAGES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD Definition of the "problem”  Whatever the problem, you must be able to in some way collect and analyze data to draw conclusions.  Stating the problem in a way that avoids value judgments is usually a good place to begin.
    20. 20. STAGES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD  Statement of a hypothesis, question or objective: A hypothesis simply provides a tentative explanation of the problem.  Suggest a hypothesis or objective for one of your projects 
    21. 21. STAGES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD  Research strategy and development of instruments: What method are you going to use?  How should your research instrument be designed or method be structured for your project?  Are you basing your work on an established theory, are you replicating the work of others, or what? 
    22. 22. STAGES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD Collecting and analyzing data:  Determining what results mean.  Will review in more detail later.
    23. 23. STAGES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD Confirmation or rejection of the hypothesis:  Proving or disproving a hypothesis are both equally valuable and hopefully meaningful findings! Optionally, could be interpreting and using findings in design.  Are your data useful for design or to draw conclusions about design?
    24. 24. STAGES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD Reporting results: Drawing conclusions  Summarizing findings  Defining future avenues of research  Identifying limitations of your finding 
    25. 25. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD How complex your problem is.  Number of variables, sample size, and generalizations about conclusions  Difficulties in data collection.  Influence of researcher bias on data collection and interpretation.  Role of subjective or qualitative interpretation in much of our work. 
    26. 26. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD How easy is it to replicate your study?  Sometimes impossible, others easy with proper controls.  Interaction of researcher and the subjects.  Hawthorne studies as a good example.  Control difficulties.  Experimental vs. non experimental situations. 
    27. 27. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD How to measure?  Lab experiments vs. instrumentation vs. observation and natural observation of human subjects. 
    28. 28. BASIC VS. APPLIED RESEARCH If you plan to obtain data that can be used to formulate, expand, or evaluate theory you will be doing basic research.  Discovery of knowledge for the sake of knowledge.  Applied research solves practical problems.  Actual problems and the conditions in which they are found in practice. 
    29. 29. CATEGORIES OF RESEARCH Experimental  Used to determine what maybe  Uses independent & dependant variables to confirm or reject a hypothesis.  Major purpose is to determine what maybe.
    30. 30. CATEGORIES OF RESEARCH Ex post facto:  Researcher does not directly manipulate the independent variables.  Similar to experimental except for issue of manipulation.
    31. 31. CATEGORIES OF RESEARCH Descriptive:  Major purpose is to tell what is through description and interpretation. Historical:  Major purpose is to tell what was.  You test the truthfulness of the reports of others.
    32. 32. QUALITATIVE VS. QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES Qualitative research  Usually refers to the meanings, concepts, characteristics, and descriptions of things.  For example, how can you describe your feelings about being in this room?  One way would be through your five senses; another through your emotional reactions to people, objects, and space
    33. 33. Quantitative research  Usually requires measures of things or items numbers & interpretation of numbers.  Quantitative evaluation of this room --we might measure the square footage, the volume, the light level, noise & sound characteristics, the square foot per person of capacity.  Try to relate this information to your perception of the space using standardized scales.  How could we use this information to develop design guidelines or to design something?
    34. 34. QUANTITATIVE EXPERIMENTS A quantitative experimental design uses deductive reasoning to arrive at a testable hypothesis.  Qualitative research designs use inductive reasoning to propose a research statement.  These experiments are sometimes referred to as true science, and use traditional mathematical and statistical means to measure results conclusively.  Quantitative experiments all use a standard format, with a few minor inter-disciplinary differences, of generating a hypothesis to be proved or disproved. 
    35. 35. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH     This hypothesis must be provable by mathematical and statistical means, and is the basis around which the whole experiment is designed. Qualitative research design is a research method used extensively by scientists and researchers studying human behavior and habits It is also very useful for product designers who want to make a product that will sell. It is often used to generate possible leads and ideas which can be used to formulate a realistic and testable hypothesis. This hypothesis can then be comprehensively tested and mathematically analyzed, with standard quantitative research methods.
    36. 36. DEDUCTIVE VS. INDUCTIVE REASONING Deductive reasoning is the opposite process to inductive reasoning. In general, terms, inductive reasoning takes a specific example, or examples, and induces that they can be applied to a much larger group.  Deductive reasoning, by contrast, starts with a general principle and deduces that it applies to a specific case. Inductive reasoning is used to try to discover a new piece of information; deductive reasoning is used to try to prove it. 
    37. 37. DEDUCTIVE VS. INDUCTIVE REASONING Deductive Reasoning  Every day, I get in my car to leave for work, at eight o‟clock. Every day, the journey takes 45 minutes, and I arrive at work on time. If I leave for work at eight o‟clock today, I will be on time. Inductive Reasoning  Today, I left for work at eight o‟clock, and was on time. Therefore, every day that I leave the house at eight o‟clock, I will arrive at work on time. The deductive statement is a perfectly logical statement, but does rely upon the initial premise being correct. Perhaps today, there are roadworks, so you will end up being late for work. This is why any hypothesis can never be completely proved, because there is always the scope for the initial premise to be wrong.
    38. 38. EVALUATION Evaluate really means to ascertain the value or amount associated with your problem.  From our perspective, evaluation is just as acceptable as research.  What is the major difference?  Evaluation is value judgments based on evidence.  Evidence can be design, measurement, analysis, and data reporting. 
    39. 39. EVALUATION  Evaluation Criteria:       Effectiveness of program or product. Efficiency of program or product. Fairness (best applied to social programs) Justice to all audiences. Quality of the program or product. Acceptability of program or product.
    40. 40. DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH AND EVALUATION The intent and purpose of the investigator.  Evaluation usually is more comprehensive in scope and focuses on one program or product.  Examples: job description evaluation of a designer, performance evaluation of a product, or of a special user group. 
    41. 41. DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH AND EVALUATION Origins and motivation for research lies in the need to know; researcher answerable to colleagues.  Evaluation is usually by contract and may focus on need to fix versus need to know. 
    42. 42. DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH AND EVALUATION Evaluation most often occurs when a problem becomes apparent, e.g. the bicycle pedals don't turn --why?  “How” to fix it.  Researcher would address the concept of how a pedal should function, test alternatives, and draw conclusions about the hypotheses stated about pedal design.  Designer might re-design the pedal. 
    43. 43. DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH AND EVALUATION  A scientist may even review a successful experiment, disagree with the results, the tests used, or the methodology, and decide to refine the research process, retesting the hypothesis.  This is called the conceptual definition, and is an overall view of the problem.
    44. 44. EXAMPLES OF DEFINING A RESEARCH PROBLEM An anthropologist might find references to a relatively unknown tribe in Papua New Guinea.  Through inductive reasoning, she arrives at the research problem and asks,  „How do these people live and how does their culture relate to nearby tribes?‟  She has found a gap in knowledge, and she seeks to fill it, using a qualitative case study, without a hypothesis. 
    45. 45. EXAMPLES OF DEFINING A RESEARCH PROBLEM   The Bandura Bobo Doll Experiment is a good example of using deductive reasoning to arrive at a research problem and hypothesis. Anecdotal evidence showed that violent behavior amongst children was increasing. Bandura believed that higher levels of violent adult role models on television, was a contributor to this rise. This was expanded into a hypothesis, and operationalization of the variables, and scientific measurement scale, led to a robust experimental design
    46. 46. FINDING RESEARCH PROJECTS Everywhere  Whatever arouses interest, tweaks curiosity, raises questions but no answer or answers exist but dispute arises on validity  Extremely important to distinguish between PERSONAL and RESEARCHABLE problem  Personal problems are real but not researchable  Researchable problems fit the requirement of the scientific method 
    47. 47. WHERE DOES YOUR INTEREST LIE? Inspect any volume of Dissertation Abstracts International under the general heading of your interest  All you need to see is your own area of interest in sharp, clear focus and then enunciate the problem indigenous to it in precise lucid terms  Research only begin with an unmistakably clear statement of the problem 
    48. 48. DAI
    49. 49. PROBLEMS FOR RESEARCH Two theoretical levels: problems whose aim is to increase our knowledge and problems whose aim is to make our life better  The wise choice of a researchable problem can lead the researcher into a truly unexpected and fascinating domain 
    50. 50. KEEPING THE RESEARCH PROCESS IN FOCUS Scientific method is a new concept to many students  Difficult to formulate an acceptable research problem  Lies in their inability to appreciate the struggle between thinking and doing  First must learn to distinguish between what it is to think and what it is to do with respect to data 
    51. 51. KEEPING IN FOCUS Very easy to become entranced with action – making notes, comparing, collating, correlating, … (discovering facts) – you are convinced of making progress in research  And collecting more facts – please slow down and think objectively  Remember the first responsibility is to formulate a problem that is carefully phrased and represent the single goal of the total research effort 
    52. 52. KEEPING IN FOCUS Successful researchers constantly ask themselves: “What am I doing, and for what purpose am I doing it?”  Paramount in disciplining thinking – fact collecting is to resolve the problem  Nothing wrong with frenzied data acquisition, but must monitor constantly and keep in mind the purpose – problem resolution 
    53. 53. THE WORDING OF THE PROBLEM Must indicate that thinking on the part of the researcher is required – analytical thinking that squeezes meaning out of the mere accumulation of facts, called the interpretation of the data  The world Almanac is a treasury of fact, full of meanings but remain sterile and frozen upon the pages  So no research without any interpretation, no matter how many facts you have 
    54. 54. WHAT IS NOT A RESEARCH PROBLEM?  Certain problems are not suitable for research – because they lack  the “interpretation of data” requirement  the “mental struggle on the part of the researcher to force the facts to reveal their meaning”  Avoid four situations when considering a problem for research
    55. 55. 1. NOT SELF-ENLIGHTENMENT  Don‟t use a problem as a ruse for achieving selfenlightenment – Students may find gathering facts and dissipating their own informational deficiency gratifying  But do not confuse with the research process  Example, “ the problem of this research is to learn more about the way the SMP system is developed”  The summit of the fact-finding effort will provide only the satisfaction having gain more information about SMP not solution of THE PROBLEM 
    56. 56. 2. NOT COMPARING DATA Example “This research project will compare the increase in the number of women students over 10 years from 1990 to 2000 with the men students over the same time span.”  We can do that without any effort, in two lines 1990 2000 Women 1234 2567 Men 1567 1600 
    57. 57. 3. NOT FINDING COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION Finding correlation between two sets of data to show relationship is not an acceptable problem  Basic research is ignored – nobody struggling with facts  It is a proposal to perform a statistical operation that a computer can do faster and more accurately  In research, correlation coefficient acts as a signpost to look deeper into the cause of the relationship that exists between two sets of data 
    58. 58. 3. NOT FINDING COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION We feel most pompous that two variables are closely related and trumpeting the world that “Research has shown that the correlation between … and … is such-and-such.”  We are blindly mistaken. Research hasn‟t shown that. A tool of research has given us this tantalizing fact. It has suggested a problem for research. To find the answer to those questions and to isolate the causal basis for the relationship is research – need thinking from researcher 
    59. 59. 4. PROBLEMS THAT RESULT IN A YES OR NO ANSWER Example, “ Is homework beneficial to children?”  No problem for research - give the students homework and see what happens.  The researchable issue is wherein the benefit of homework, if any, lies?  What factual components of homework are beneficial in the process?  Which ones are self-defeating? 
    60. 60. 4. PROBLEMS THAT RESULT IN A YES OR NO ANSWER Answers to these questions would enlarge our wisdom – could structure the homework assignments with more purpose and greater intelligence and thereby promote the learning of children - more effectively than we do now  But demand full power of the scientific method and ancillary help of statistics, computerization, discriminative and analytical thinking, and creative research methodology 
    61. 61. GUIDELINES FOR FINDING A LEGITIMATE PROBLEM Appropriate research projects don‟t fall out of trees and hit you on the head.  Must be sufficiently knowledgeable about your topic of interest to know what projects might make important contributions to the field.  SIX guidelines to formulate an important and useful research project are listed below. 
    62. 62. 1. LOOK AROUND YOU In many disciplines, questions that need answers – phenomena that need explanation - are everywhere.  Example: In 17th. century, Galileo was trying to make sense of why large bodies of water (but not small ones) rise and fall in the form of tides twice a day?  BUT not to suggest that novice researchers should take on such monumental questions.  Concentrate on smaller problems – continually ask questions about what you hear and see.  Why does such–and–such happen? What makes such–and–such tick? (The reasons for somebody‟s behaviour) 
    63. 63. 2. READ THE LITERATURE   a) b) c) d) What things are already known – don‟t reinvent the wheel – also tells what is NOT known in the area – in other words, what still needs to be done. Research project might Address the suggestions for future research that another researcher has offered Replicate a research project in a different setting or with a different population Consider how various subpopulations might behave differently in the same situation Apply an existing perspective or explanation to a new situation
    64. 64. 2. READ THE LITERATURE e) Explore unexpected or contradictory findings in previous studies f) Challenge research findings that seem to contradict what you know or believe to be true. Other advantages :  Provides theoretical base on which to build a rationale for your study  Provides potential research methodologies and methods of measurement  Help you interpret your results and relate them to what is already known in the field
    65. 65. 3. ATTEND PROFESSIONAL CONFERENCES Many researchers have great success finding new research projects at national and regional conferences.  Learn “what is hot and what is not” in their field  Novice researchers can make contacts with experts in their field, ask questions, share ideas, exchange email addresses with more experienced and knowledgeable individuals  Many students are reluctant to approach well-known scholars at conferences, for fear that these scholars don‟t have the time or patience to talk with novices – Quite the opposite is true – They may feel flattered that you are familiar with their work and that you would like to extend or apply it in some way. 
    66. 66. 4. SEEK THE ADVICE OF EXPERTS  a) b) c) Another simple yet highly effective strategy for identifying a research problem is simply to ask an expert: What needs to be done? What burning questions are still out there? What previous research findings seemingly don‟t make sense?
    67. 67. 5. CHOOSE A TOPIC THAT INTRIGUES AND MOTIVATES YOU Reading literature, attend conferences, talk with experts, will uncover a number of potential research problems  Pick just one, based on what you want to learn more about  Must believe that it is worth your time and effort.  Saying “You‟re going to be married to it, so you might as well enjoy it.” 
    68. 68. 6. CHOOSE A TOPIC THAT OTHERS WILL FIND INTERESTING AND WORTHY OF ATTENTION Want to share findings with a larger audience, not only end with thesis.  Describe what you have done at a regional or national conference, publish an article in a professional journal, or both.  Future employers, too, are also interested in your thesis topic if in your research, you are pursuing an issue of broad scientific or social concern or, more generally, a hot topic in your field. 
    69. 69. STATING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM The heart of any research project is the problem.  At every step in the process, successful researchers ask themselves: What am I doing? For what purpose am I doing it?  Such questions can help focus your efforts toward achieving your ultimate purpose for gathering data: to resolve the problem.  Researchers get off to a strong start when they begin with an unmistakably clear statement of the problem. 
    70. 70. STATING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM After identifying a research problem, therefore, you must articulate it in such a way that it is carefully phrased and represents the single goal of the total research effort.  Following are some general guidelines to help you do just that: 
    71. 71. 1. STATE THE PROBLEM CLEARLY AND COMPLETELY Always state the problem in one or more grammatically complete sentences  Anyone, anywhere in the world could read it, understand it, and react to it without the benefit of your presence.  If the problem is not stated with such clarity, then you are merely deceiving yourself that you know what the problem is.  Such self-deception will cause you difficulty later on. 
    72. 72. THE PROBLEM STATEMENT Bad habits – try to state a research problem by jotting down meaningless groups of words, verbal fragments - no help in seeing the problem clearly  Examples of half-statements, mere verbal blobs that only hint at the problem but do not state it  A) Software metrics and the quality of software  B) Subsidise ICT industry  C) ICT promotes English in school  D) QoS in computer network 
    73. 73. THE PROBLEM STATEMENT The fragments demonstrate that the researcher either cannot or will not think in terms of specific, researchable goals  Must limit the area of study to a manageable size  Example, metric and quality, must limit what metrics? which quality attribute? and more importantly what domain of the software you want to investigate? By specifying the domain you are narrowing down the metric and the quality attribute 
    74. 74. EXAMPLE: METRIC AND QUALITY What effect does module size has on the understandability of program for a Science subject educational software?  The metric: module size  The quality attribute: understandability  The domain: program, Science subject, educational software 
    75. 75. 2. THINK THROUGH THE FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT THAT THE PROBLEM IMPLIES Don‟t rush into problem without thinking through its implications.  “This study proposes to study the effect of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching mathematics and science in Malaysian standard one schools”.  How many primary schools all over Malaysia? How to contact? Personal visit? What is the financial outlay? Mail survey? Printing and postage cost? 
    76. 76. 3. SAY PRECISELY WHAT YOU MEAN Correct the problem statement right up front, no place for evasion (trying to avoid something), equivocation (having a doubtful or double meaning), or mental reservation in research  Must mean what you say, cannot assume others will know what is in your mind, they will take your words at their face value: You mean what you say. That‟s it.  Your failure to be careful with your words can have grave (serious) results for your status as a scholar and a researcher 
    77. 77. BASIC RULE Absolute honesty and integrity are assumed in every statement a scholar makes  No double talk, limit study to specific geographical area or to a student population within certain designated limits  It would have preserved your reputation as a researcher of INTEGRITY (honesty and goodness) and PRECISION (exactness and accuracy) 
    78. 78. BASIC RULE If a researcher cannot be responsible for the statement, one might question whether such researcher is likely to be any more responsible in gathering and interpreting the data  It is very serious and can be a brutal blow, for it reflects on the basic integrity of the whole research effort  THREE common difficulties     Fragmentary and meaningless splutter (speak (words) in a quick confused way, eg. because of excitement) Irresponsible and extravagant (unnecessary and unreasonable) wording Generalized discussion that ends in foggy focus
    79. 79. GENERALIZED AND FOGGY Occasionally, announce intention to make statement, from that point the discussion becomes foggier  This researcher talks about the problem but never actually states what the problem is.  Under the excuse that the problem needs an introduction or needs to be seen against a background, the researcher launches into a generalized discussion, continually obscuring (not easily seen or understood) the problem, never clearly articulating (able to express his/her opinions clearly in words) it 
    80. 80. FOGGY PROBLEM STATEMENT  The upsurge of interest in reading and learning disabilities found among both children and adults has focused the attention of educators, psychologists, and linguists on the language syndrome. In order to understand how language is learned, it is necessary to understand what a language is. Language acquisition is a normal developmental aspect of every individual, but it has not been studied in sufficient depth. To provide us with the necessary background information to understand the anomaly of language deficiency implies a knowledge of the developmental process of language as these relate to the individual from infancy to maturity. Grammar, also an aspect of language learning, is acquired through pragmatic language usage. Phonology, syntax, and semantics are all intimately involved in the study of any language disability.
    81. 81. WHERE IS THE PROBLEM STATEMENT? None, that is articulated with sufficient clarity  No orientation essay  The problem is stated in the very first words of an abstract in DAI, e.g “The purpose of this study is to …”  No mistaking it  No background buildup necessary  Straightforward plunge into the business at hand 
    82. 82. 4. EDIT YOUR WORK Difficulties can be avoided by carefully editing your words. Editing is sharpening a thought to a gemlike point, and eliminating useless verbiage (wordiness). By choosing words precisely will clarify your writing  Editing improves your thinking and your prose (ordinary written or spoken language). Many students think that any words that approximately express a thought are adequate to be conveyed to others  Approximation is never precision  Need to be rigorous (careful and detailed) with the words 
    83. 83. 4. EDIT YOUR WORK      Punctuation will help Cliches (idea or expression that is used so often that it no longer has any meaning), colloquialisms (word or phrase suitable for normal conversation: not formal or literary), slang (words, phrases, etc. used in very informal conversation, not suitable for formal situations), jargon (special or technical words used by a particular group of people), and the gibberish (meaningless talk; nonsense) of any group obscure (not easily seen or understood) thought Jargon shows lazy mind They feel impressive or add importance Thought is clearest when clothed in simple words, concrete nouns, and active, expressive verbs
    84. 84. BASIC GUIDELINES FOR CLEAR WRITING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Express thought fully with least words possible Use a thesaurus: help find the exact word Economize on syllable Keep the sentence short Look critically at each thought. Do the words say exactly what you want them to say? Read carefully phrase by phrase. Throw out superfluous (more than is needed and wanted) and unnecessary words 6. Misplaced phrases and clauses can create havoc
    85. 85. SUBPROBLEMS VERSUS PSEUDOSUBPROBLEMS Subproblems are the subparts of the main problem  The researcher must distinguish subproblems that are an integral part of the main problem from things that look like problems but are nothing more than procedural issues  The latter, which are called pseudosubproblems, involve decisions the researcher must make before he or she can resolve the research problem and its subproblems  Pseudo-subproblems are not researchable problems  Procedural indecisions – decision that researcher must resolve  Problems for researcher BUT not part of the research problem 
    86. 86. SUBPROBLEMS VERSUS PSEUDOSUBPROBLEMS Consider the following as examples:  What is the best way to choose a sample?  How large should a representative sample of a population be?  What instruments or methods should be used to gather the data?  What statistical procedures should be used to analyse the data?  How do I find the subproblems within the main problem?
    87. 87. SUBPROBLEMS VERSUS PSEUDOSUBPROBLEMS Deal with pseudo-subproblems forthrightly by making a firm decision about them and then get on with the solution of the research problem.  To deal with pseudo-subproblems, you must decide whether (a) a little common sense and some creative thinking might help in solving your “problem” or (b) you simply lack the knowledge to address the difficulty. 
    88. 88. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBPROBLEMS There are four key characteristics of subproblems: 1) Each subproblem should be a completely researchable unit  A subproblem should constitute a logical subarea of the larger research undertaking.  Each subproblem might be researched as a separate subproject within the larger research goal  The solutions to the subproblems, taken together, combine to resolve the main problem  It is essential that each subproblem be stated clearly and succinctly (expressed briefly and clearly)  Often, a subproblem is stated in the form of a question because it tends to focus the researcher‟s attention more directly on the research target of the subproblem than does a declarative statement  After all, an interrogative attitude is what marks a true researcher
    89. 89. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBPROBLEMS 2)Each subproblem must be clearly tied to the interpretation of the data  At some point in the statement of the subproblem – as within the main problem – the fact that data will be interpreted must be clearly evident  This fact may be expressed as a part of each subproblem statement, or it may occupy an entirely separate subproblem
    90. 90. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBPROBLEMS 3) The subproblems must add up to the totality of the problem  After the subproblems have been stated, check them against the statement of the main problem to see that a) nothing in excess of the coverage of the main problem is included and that b) all significant areas of the main problem are covered by the subproblems
    91. 91. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBPROBLEMS 4) Subproblems should be small in number  If the main problem is carefully stated and properly limited to a feasible research effort, the researcher will find that it usually contains two to six subproblems  Sometimes, the inexperienced researcher will come up with as many as 10, 15, or 20 subproblems  If this happens, it may fall into one of the following:  Some are actually procedural issues (pseudosubproblems);  Some might reasonably be combined into larger subproblems; or  The main problem is more complex than you originally believed. If the last of these is true, you may want to reconsider whether the solution to the overall research problem is actually achievable given the time and resources you have
    92. 92. IDENTIFYING SUBPROBLEMS Beware of unrealistic goals  Start with the problem itself – if it is correctly written, it is easy to detect the subproblem areas that may be isolated for further study Paper-and-Pencil Approach Using this approach, write the problem on a piece of paper and then box off the subproblem areas. Follow these steps:  Copy the problem onto a clean sheet of paper, leaving considerable space between the lines  Read the problem critically to discover the areas that should receive in-depth treatment before the problem can be resolved  Make sure every subproblem contains a word that indicates the necessity to interpret the data within that particular subproblem (e.g., analyse, discover, compare). Underline this word  Arrange the entire problem, which will now have the subproblems boxed off, into a skeletal plan that shows the research structure of the problem. You now have a structure of the whole research design 
    93. 93. EVERY PROBLEM NEEDS FURTHER DELINEATION  To comprehend fully the meaning of the problem, the researcher should eliminate any possibility of misunderstanding by  Stating the hypotheses and/or research questions: Describing the specific hypotheses being tested or questions being asked.  Delimiting the research: Fully disclosing what the researcher intends to do and, conversely, does not intend to do.  Defining the terms: Giving the meanings of all terms in the statements of the problem and subproblems that have any possibility of being misunderstood.  Stating the assumptions: Presenting a clear statement of all assumptions on which the research will rest.  These matters facilitate understanding of the research – called the setting of the problem