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Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
Chap 9 & 10
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Chap 9 & 10

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    • 1. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 7/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Chapter 9 Fundamentals of Computer Processing 8-1Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 2. Computing HistoryENIAC - 1946UNIVAC I– First sold in 1956 to Census BureauIBM System 360 Line of Computers– 1960’s– Revolutionized computing 1954 -- first computer installed in a business (another UNIVAC I at GE) 8-2
    • 3. Computing HistoryEarly 1970s -- minicomputersLate 1970s -- microcomputers (TRS-80,Commodore PET)IBM PC– 1982 8-3
    • 4. Computer SizesMainframes– Large– Centrally located– Used by large organizationsMinicomputers– Mid-sized– Today’s server market descended from these machines 8-4
    • 5. Computer Sizes [cont.]Microcomputers– Made possible by microprocessor– PC -- used by one person, or by a few people in the same area 8-5
    • 6. LiteracyComputer Literacy– Ability to use computing resourcesInformation Literacy– Understanding how and why information affects the decision-making process 8-6
    • 7. The Central Processing UnitComputer (CPU)Schematic Control UnitInput Data Primary Output Storage Unit Information Arithmetic and Secondary Logic Unit Storage Unit 8-7
    • 8. ProcessorsMain unit where processing is performed– Called CPU– Microcomputer CPUs called microprocessorsSpeed– Megahertz (MHz)– Word Size 8-8
    • 9. MemoryMain memory– Storage area where both data being processed and program instructions being executed are storedStorage (secondary)– Magnetized coding on the surface of a storage device 8-9
    • 10. Bits and BytesOne kilobyte (1KB)– 210 bytes (1,024)One megabyte (1MB)– 220 bytes (1,048,576)One gigabyte (1GB)– 230 bytes (1,073,741,924) 8-10
    • 11. Different Memory TypesRAM - Random access memory– Computer programs and data are loaded into RAM to be executed by the computer processorROM - Read-only memory– Information used by the operating system and processor when the computer is startedDRAM - Dynamic RAM– Allows buffering of data and increases efficiency of RAM 8-11
    • 12. Storage DevicesTape or disk driveSequential storageRandom storageHigh Capacity– DVD, CD-ROM, CD-RW, Zip, Jaz 8-12
    • 13. Input DevicesKeyboardsMicrophonesMachine-captured data– Scanners/barcodes– Cost benefits 8-13
    • 14. Output DevicesDisplayed– Monitor » Resolution » Pixals » GUIPrinted– Speed– Quality– Impact/nonimpact 8-14
    • 15. Means of Displayed OutputProducing DevicesComputer ABC123 Printers Output Speech Computer Output Devices Plotters Microfilm 8-15
    • 16. Printers Impact NonimpactLine Character Page Ink Laser jet Dot Daisy matrix wheel 8-16
    • 17. MultimediaUse of more than one media at one time– Image– Video– AudioPointing devicesSpeech synthesisAnimated images 8-17
    • 18. Hardware ChangesPower compared to price doubles every 18monthsCultivate new information about computingresources– Trade journals– Professional societies– Continuing education– WWW 8-18
    • 19. SoftwareTwo main types of software -- system andapplicationSystem– Performs fundamental tasks that all users of a particular computer requireApplication– Processes user’s data 8-19
    • 20. Three Main System Software TypesOperating system– Manages computer’s processes » Schedule tasks » Manage hardware and software resources » Maintain system security » Enable sharing » Handle Interrupts 8-20
    • 21. Three Main System Software Types(cont.)Utilities– Routine that enables the user to perform certain basic data processing activities– Copy, erase, sort, merge, et ceteraLanguage translators– Change programmer instructions into computer instructions– Highest form for translation is a natural language 8-21
    • 22. System Software Types (cont.)Fourth generation languages– Called 4GL– Describes what is to be done by computer– Does not describe explicitly how it will be done– DBMSs are related to this area » SQL » Query language » SAS, SPSS 8-22
    • 23. The Program is Translated Before the Data is Processed Source Program 1 Translate 2 Input Object Output Data Program 8-23
    • 24. Application SoftwarePrewritten software– Standardized by business function– Also called packaged application software and off-the-shelf application software– Advantages » Available now » Less expensive 8-24
    • 25. Application Software (cont.)Custom software– Best for unique business operations– Far less is created today because of wide availability– Programmer salaries have risen 8-25
    • 26. Role of User-Friendly Software Businesses need programmers to create applications – Employees – Consultants – Contracts with other companies Simple intuitive software is user-friendly Business users have expertise in their areas – Need to work with technical experts 8-26
    • 27. Software ChangeSoftware changes almost as rapidly ashardware– IS professionals are routinely contacted concerning system updates– Professional societies and conferencesChanges in business needs 8-27
    • 28. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 7/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Chapter 10 9-28Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 29. The Database and Database Management System
    • 30. Data OrganizationData Field– Smallest unit of dataRecord– Collection of related fieldsFile– Collection of related records 9-30
    • 31. Data Organization (cont.)Folders– Collection of related files– Conceptually similar to a branch of the treeSubfolder– A folder within a folderMovement of folders using GUI 9-31
    • 32. Spreadsheet as a Simple DatabaseRows and columns of a spreadsheet can beregarded as a simple databaseFlat files– Does not have repeating columns– Spreadsheet table is a file and column is a fieldKey fields– Contains a value to uniquely identify each record in a table 9-32
    • 33. Data Structure vs. Spreadsheet TerminologySpreadsheet Term Data Structure TermTable FileColumn FieldRow Record 9-33
    • 34. Database StructuresDatabase– All data stored on computer-based resources of the organizationDatabase Management System (DBMS)– Software application that stores the structure of the database, the data itself, relationships among the data in the database, as well as forms and reports pertaining to the database 9-34
    • 35. Database Structures (cont.)Relational structure– Rows and columns– Frees designers from need to specify relationships prior to building the database– Date and Codd described structure– Does not rely on physical relationships– Easy to understand 9-35
    • 36. Relational Database Vendors 1. IBM 2. Informix Software, Inc. 3. Microsoft 4. Oracle 5. Sybase 9-36
    • 37. The Database ConceptDatabase concept– Logical integration of records in multiple filesData redundancy– Duplication of dataData inconsistencyData independence– Keep data specifications separate from programs, in tables and indexes 9-37
    • 38. TablesBook Name Author RequiredBanking Principles Knox 25Management Information Systems 8E McLeod and Schell 75Personal Sales Techniques Wei70Quality Service, Quality Customer Brutus 54 9-38
    • 39. Description of Book Table 9-39
    • 40. Description of Student Table 9-40
    • 41. Table Relationships 9-41
    • 42. Salesperson Sales Customer Accounts file statistics file receivable file file Accounts Buyer Inventory Vendor payable file file file file Purchase General order ledger file file 9-42 A Database Consists of One or More Files
    • 43. Creating a DatabaseTwo approaches:1. Process oriented approach (problem- solving)2. Enterprise modeling 9-43
    • 44. Define1. the Problem2. Identify necessary Data Needs Can Be decisions3. Describe information needs Defined by Taking a4. Determine the necessary Problem- Oriented processing Specify Approach5. data needs Data6. Specifications 9-44
    • 45. Strategic Planning for Information Resources Create enterprise 1. data model Enterprise Data Model Data Needs Can Develop Be Defined by 2. Database Creating an Enterprise Model Database 9-45
    • 46. Rule for Required Field 9-46
    • 47. Enforcing Value of BookName 9-47
    • 48. Creating a Database1) Describe the data2) Enter the data3) Use the database– Query language– Query-by-example– Data manipulation language (DML) 9-48
    • 49. Query-by-Exampleation can be generated from within DBMSNo need for separate statistical software 9-49
    • 50. The Database Administrator (DBA)D B A Duties Database planning; work with users and others, define schema, etc. Database implementation; creating the database and enforcing policies and procedures Database operations Database security 9-50
    • 51. Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD)Data warehousing– refinement in the database concept to make it » very large » very pure » very retrievable 9-51
    • 52. The Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) Process1. Define the data and the task2. Acquire the data3. Clean the data4. Develop the hypothesis and search model5. Mine the data6. Test and verify7. Interpret and use 9-52
    • 53. DBMS AdvantagesReduce data redundancyAchieve data independenceEnable integration of data from multiplefilesRetrieve data and information quicklyImprove security 9-53
    • 54. DBMS DisadvantagesRequires a firm to: Obtain expensive software Obtain a large hardware configuration Hire and maintain a DBA staff 9-54

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