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  • 1. Factors Affecting Language Learning Strategies Use Uma Arumugam A146534 Faculty Of Education UKM Bangi
  • 2. What is it? • A motivated learner can be defined as a person who expends effort, persistent and attentive to the tasks at hand, has goals, desires and aspirations makes attributions concerning success or failure, is aroused and makes use the strategies to aid achieving goals. (Dornyei 2003, p.173) • Doornyei (2001b) stresses the importance of raising learners’ awareness of self-motivating strategies through discusssion and sharing the experiences. •The social psychological factor of motivation has been proven to account for differential success in language learning.
  • 3. •The learners with highly motivated acquire the second language faster and get to the greater degree. • There are two types of motivation which are identified as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. a) Intrinsic motivation – doing something as an end in itself, for own self-sustaining pleasurable rewards of enjoyment, interest, challenge or skill and knowledge development. b) Extrinsic motivation – doing something as a means to some separable outcome, such as gaining a qualification, getting a job, pleasing the teacher or avoiding punishment (Ryan and Deci,2000). • Two key principles to the maintenance of motivation: a. Motivation must emanate from the learner. b. Learners must see themselves as agents of the processes that shape their motivation.
  • 4. AGE
  • 5. • The younger people when they started learning the second language the more native-like will be their pronunciation (Oyama ,1976). • In other studies have shown that, although younger learners are often more successful in the long run, adults may learn more quickly initially. • Although consensus is far from universal, most of the evidence regarding agerelated differences in language learning would seem to indicate that, overall, younger is better. • When dealing with learners of differing ages, teachers need to be flexible in their methods in order that learners may be able to learn in the way they feel comfortable and which brings them success. • Rubin (1975) included age as one of the factors requiring further research, and even 30 years later, continued research into age related learner differences in language development is vitally important in order that learners of all ages might receive optimal support from educators.
  • 6. Factors which interact with age to influence good language learning Maturational factors Including – Critical/sensitive period , Myelination, etc Socio-affective factors Including –Culture/language shock Social distance Disorientation Individual factors Including – Aptitude, Attitude, Gend er, Culture, Personality etc. AGE Cognitive factors Including – Existing knowledge Strategic awareness Understanding of rule systems Metacognitive control Situational factors Including – Naturalistic Distance learning Classroom Teaching/learning method Learning target
  • 7. • Gender socialization may be a key factor in any relative success that males and females of any age have in language learning. • Females have stronger connection between the left and right brain hemispheres, meaning that they have an easier time learning the second language than males. • Females greater desire for social connection and greater valuation of communicative competence lead them to utilize more social interaction strategies (Nyikos, 1990; Oxford and Nyikos, 1989) • Female almost invariably use more language learning strategies than males, and make greater use of general study strategies and formal rule-regulated practice strategies than males. • Although females are often believed to be the good language learners than males, research evidence for this belief has proven elusive . This is because “gender” is one of the many important facets of social identity, interacts with race, ethnicity, class, sexuality ability and social status in framing good language learning experiences (Norton and Pavlenko,2004, p. 504).
  • 8. PERSONALITY • Personality has been defined as “those aspects of an individual’s behaviour, attitudes, beliefs, thought, actions and feelings which are seen as typical and distinctive of that person (Richards, Platt and Platt, 1998,p. 340). • Personality traits such as extroversion, introversion, risktaking, independence and empathy have been the basis of discussions and disputes relating to the topic (Ellis 1986). • Extraversion – Introversion : Extraverts tend to focus on the outer world of things and people whereas introverts focus more on their inner world of internal experiences, including concepts and feelings. • Guiora, Brannon and Dull (1972) have considered empathy to be important in language learning.
  • 9. • Krashen (1981) argued that an out-going personality contributes to language learning and have found that introverts generally perform better academically . • Coleman and Klapper, 2005, extrovert appears more likely to take advantage of social opportunities for second language input. • Everyone has different and unique personalities and each personality trait can affect our second language in different ways (Ellis, 1986).
  • 10. What is it? • As in all school topics, learning strategies are a factor of second language learning. • Learning strategies defined as steps or actions taken by the learners to improve the development of their language skills (Gass et al 1993, p. 265). • Different learning strategies work best for different learners when learning a second language. • Example, a learner may learn vocabulary through writing and practicing the vocabulary using cue cards, whereas another learner may only read the vocabulary and learn that way. • The good language learner can adopt particular learning strategies to suit them, theorists such as Bialystok, 1990, and Cohen, 1992.
  • 11. • Higher level learners frequently use a large number of language learning strategies or activities consciously chosen for the purposes of regulating their own language learning, in particular: a. strategies to manage their own learning (metacognitive) b. strategies to expand their vocabulary c. Strategies to improve their knowledge of grammar d. strategies involving the use of resources e. strategies involving all language skills
  • 12. THANK YOU