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BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
BT - Wood and Wood products
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BT - Wood and Wood products

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  • 1. WOOD and WOOD PRODUCTSAr. Rino D.A. Fernandez, uapClass Instructor
  • 2. WOOD a natural organic material that has been used for many centuries for the construction of buildings, bridges and a variety of other structures
  • 3. WOOD• Still the most common materials for small to medium-scale project in other countries
  • 4. WOOD
  • 5. WOOD
  • 6. WOOD• In the Phils, wood was widely used during the Spanish period and until 1960’s
  • 7. WOOD
  • 8. WOOD• My recent project,
  • 9. WOOD
  • 10. WOOD
  • 11. WOOD• Traditional building material• Easy to work with• Durable• Beautiful• Lightweight• Rust and corrosion free• Has varied uses
  • 12. CLASSIFICATION OF TREES Endogenous - Trees grows endwards - Example are bamboo & palm
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION OF TREES Exogenous - Trees grows outwards
  • 14. CLASSIFICATION OF EXOGENOUS TREES(based on broad botanical distinction) Softwoods - Generally needle- leaved coniferous trees that bear their seed in cones - Example are pine & cedar
  • 15. CLASSIFICATION OF EXOGENOUS TREES(based on broad botanical distinction) Hardwoods - Generally broad- leaved deciduous trees - Example are oak, narra, molave, maple, etc
  • 16. PROPERTIES OF SOFTWOOD: • Contract with heat & moisture • Have lower density than hardwoods (good for acoustic & thermal insulation • Good for interior finishes & for furniture • Solid but soft • Flexible & strong • Not water resistant • Cost : low
  • 17. PROPERTIES OF HARDWOOD: • Contract with heat & moisture • Stronger, denser, & homogenous than hardwoods (good for framing system) • Good for interior finishes & for furniture • Resist fire better than softwood • Nearly impervious to water (some varieties) • Cost : high
  • 18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
  • 19. WOOD STRUCTURE Bark Bast Sapwood Heartwood Pith
  • 20. WOOD STRUCTURE
  • 21. WOOD STRUCTURE
  • 22. WOOD & TIMBER WOOD is the hard, fibrous material that makes up the tree under the bark TIMBER is a wood which retains its natural physical structure and chemical composition and is suitable for various construction works
  • 23. GOOD LUMBERING PRACTICELumbering- term applied to the operations performed in preparing wood for commercial purposes Logging Felling Storing Sawing Drying
  • 24. FELLING• Timber felled during summer is more readily susceptible to mold. During this period, the quantity of sap is at its greatest & the state of swelling, acidity, etc. are very much unfavorable• Coniferous trees is ideal to be felled during full moon because the resins were well drawn out of the roots & into the trunk
  • 25. STORAGE• Timber stored in water after felling reduces the risks of molds & insect damage
  • 26. SPLITTING/SAWING• Should take place while the trees is still very damp
  • 27. DRYING• 70-90% of the original moisture must be removed from the timber before this could be used for construction…..a reason why routine drying is important
  • 28. METHODS OF DRYING TIMBER• Natural Air-drying• Artificial Forced air drying – used of fans to booster the circulation of air Kiln-drying – drying in a large airtight structure, heated by steam pipes Radio Frequency Dielectric Drying – using radio frequency dielectric heat
  • 29. CHARACTERISTIC OF GOOD TIMBER
  • 30. DEFECTS IN WOOD
  • 31. DEFECTS IN WOOD• Caused by Abnormal Growth Heart shake-radial cracks originating at the heart of the trees Wind/Cup Shake- cracks/breaks across annual rings of timber Star Shake- series of heart shakes thus forming a star-like manner Knots- occur at the branch of the wood
  • 32. DEFECTS IN WOOD• Due to Deterioration Dry Rot – the presence of moisture caused by fungi in seasoned wood Wet Dry – takes place sometimes in the growth of the tree caused by water saturation
  • 33. CAUSES OF DECAY• Alternate moisture & dryness• Fungi & molds• Insects & worms• Heat & confined air
  • 34. GEOMETRICAL IMPERFECTIONS &DISTORTIONS IN TIMBER
  • 35. METHODS OF PRESERVATION External – application of preservative coating Internal – lumber is subjected to pressure & injected with chemical such as zinc chloride solution/salt
  • 36. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Flooring Narra Molave Pine Benguet Toog (Phil. Oak)
  • 37. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Doors & Windows Narra Tanguile Apitong
  • 38. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Outdoor Deck Yacal Molave Guijo
  • 39. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Ceiling Panel & Joists Molave Pine Benguet
  • 40. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Railing & Balustrade Narra Molave Pine Benguet
  • 41. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Exposed Structural Member Molave Pine Benguet Yacal Lauan
  • 42. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Paneling Narra Pine Benguet Almaciga Dao
  • 43. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Furniture & Cabinets Narra Molave Pine Benguet Almaciga Kamagong
  • 44. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Structural Members & Molave Framing Yacal Guijo Pine Benguet
  • 45. Examples of PHILIPPINE TIMBERFirst Group Narra – most expensive, for floors, doors, furniture, panelings, veneers Molave – for posts & girders, trusses, framings, floors, jambs, furniture, & other purpose esp. those exposed to weather Yacal & Guijo – for posts & girders, jambs, wooden decks & railings exposed to weather
  • 46. Examples of PHILIPPINE TIMBERFirst Group Pine Benguet – for flooring, panelings, sidings & furniture. Also for framings, trusses Tanguile & Apitong – the most common lumber in the market. Used for framings, joists, trusses, nailers, etc. Lauan (white & red) – for framings, furnitures Kamagong – for furnitures
  • 47. Examples of PHILIPPINE TIMBERFirst Group Dao – for panelings & veneers Almaciga – for panelings & veneers Mahogany Ipil Kalantas Kalamansanai
  • 48. TAKE-HOME QUIZ:Research on the following Wood Connections:1. Using an 8”x8” wood post, illustrate the wood post connection to a 12”x12” concrete pedestal.2. Illustrate the connection of an 8”x8” wood post into a 2-2”x6”x12” wood beam.3. Illustrate the roof framing layout (using wood rafters) for a 5.00m x 6.00m bungalow with gable roof profile.

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