BT - Wood and Wood products

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BT - Wood and Wood products

  1. 1. WOOD and WOOD PRODUCTSAr. Rino D.A. Fernandez, uapClass Instructor
  2. 2. WOOD a natural organic material that has been used for many centuries for the construction of buildings, bridges and a variety of other structures
  3. 3. WOOD• Still the most common materials for small to medium-scale project in other countries
  4. 4. WOOD
  5. 5. WOOD
  6. 6. WOOD• In the Phils, wood was widely used during the Spanish period and until 1960’s
  7. 7. WOOD
  8. 8. WOOD• My recent project,
  9. 9. WOOD
  10. 10. WOOD
  11. 11. WOOD• Traditional building material• Easy to work with• Durable• Beautiful• Lightweight• Rust and corrosion free• Has varied uses
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION OF TREES Endogenous - Trees grows endwards - Example are bamboo & palm
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF TREES Exogenous - Trees grows outwards
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION OF EXOGENOUS TREES(based on broad botanical distinction) Softwoods - Generally needle- leaved coniferous trees that bear their seed in cones - Example are pine & cedar
  15. 15. CLASSIFICATION OF EXOGENOUS TREES(based on broad botanical distinction) Hardwoods - Generally broad- leaved deciduous trees - Example are oak, narra, molave, maple, etc
  16. 16. PROPERTIES OF SOFTWOOD: • Contract with heat & moisture • Have lower density than hardwoods (good for acoustic & thermal insulation • Good for interior finishes & for furniture • Solid but soft • Flexible & strong • Not water resistant • Cost : low
  17. 17. PROPERTIES OF HARDWOOD: • Contract with heat & moisture • Stronger, denser, & homogenous than hardwoods (good for framing system) • Good for interior finishes & for furniture • Resist fire better than softwood • Nearly impervious to water (some varieties) • Cost : high
  18. 18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
  19. 19. WOOD STRUCTURE Bark Bast Sapwood Heartwood Pith
  20. 20. WOOD STRUCTURE
  21. 21. WOOD STRUCTURE
  22. 22. WOOD & TIMBER WOOD is the hard, fibrous material that makes up the tree under the bark TIMBER is a wood which retains its natural physical structure and chemical composition and is suitable for various construction works
  23. 23. GOOD LUMBERING PRACTICELumbering- term applied to the operations performed in preparing wood for commercial purposes Logging Felling Storing Sawing Drying
  24. 24. FELLING• Timber felled during summer is more readily susceptible to mold. During this period, the quantity of sap is at its greatest & the state of swelling, acidity, etc. are very much unfavorable• Coniferous trees is ideal to be felled during full moon because the resins were well drawn out of the roots & into the trunk
  25. 25. STORAGE• Timber stored in water after felling reduces the risks of molds & insect damage
  26. 26. SPLITTING/SAWING• Should take place while the trees is still very damp
  27. 27. DRYING• 70-90% of the original moisture must be removed from the timber before this could be used for construction…..a reason why routine drying is important
  28. 28. METHODS OF DRYING TIMBER• Natural Air-drying• Artificial Forced air drying – used of fans to booster the circulation of air Kiln-drying – drying in a large airtight structure, heated by steam pipes Radio Frequency Dielectric Drying – using radio frequency dielectric heat
  29. 29. CHARACTERISTIC OF GOOD TIMBER
  30. 30. DEFECTS IN WOOD
  31. 31. DEFECTS IN WOOD• Caused by Abnormal Growth Heart shake-radial cracks originating at the heart of the trees Wind/Cup Shake- cracks/breaks across annual rings of timber Star Shake- series of heart shakes thus forming a star-like manner Knots- occur at the branch of the wood
  32. 32. DEFECTS IN WOOD• Due to Deterioration Dry Rot – the presence of moisture caused by fungi in seasoned wood Wet Dry – takes place sometimes in the growth of the tree caused by water saturation
  33. 33. CAUSES OF DECAY• Alternate moisture & dryness• Fungi & molds• Insects & worms• Heat & confined air
  34. 34. GEOMETRICAL IMPERFECTIONS &DISTORTIONS IN TIMBER
  35. 35. METHODS OF PRESERVATION External – application of preservative coating Internal – lumber is subjected to pressure & injected with chemical such as zinc chloride solution/salt
  36. 36. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Flooring Narra Molave Pine Benguet Toog (Phil. Oak)
  37. 37. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Doors & Windows Narra Tanguile Apitong
  38. 38. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Outdoor Deck Yacal Molave Guijo
  39. 39. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Ceiling Panel & Joists Molave Pine Benguet
  40. 40. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Railing & Balustrade Narra Molave Pine Benguet
  41. 41. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Exposed Structural Member Molave Pine Benguet Yacal Lauan
  42. 42. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Paneling Narra Pine Benguet Almaciga Dao
  43. 43. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Furniture & Cabinets Narra Molave Pine Benguet Almaciga Kamagong
  44. 44. APPLICATION: Philippine Timber• Structural Members & Molave Framing Yacal Guijo Pine Benguet
  45. 45. Examples of PHILIPPINE TIMBERFirst Group Narra – most expensive, for floors, doors, furniture, panelings, veneers Molave – for posts & girders, trusses, framings, floors, jambs, furniture, & other purpose esp. those exposed to weather Yacal & Guijo – for posts & girders, jambs, wooden decks & railings exposed to weather
  46. 46. Examples of PHILIPPINE TIMBERFirst Group Pine Benguet – for flooring, panelings, sidings & furniture. Also for framings, trusses Tanguile & Apitong – the most common lumber in the market. Used for framings, joists, trusses, nailers, etc. Lauan (white & red) – for framings, furnitures Kamagong – for furnitures
  47. 47. Examples of PHILIPPINE TIMBERFirst Group Dao – for panelings & veneers Almaciga – for panelings & veneers Mahogany Ipil Kalantas Kalamansanai
  48. 48. TAKE-HOME QUIZ:Research on the following Wood Connections:1. Using an 8”x8” wood post, illustrate the wood post connection to a 12”x12” concrete pedestal.2. Illustrate the connection of an 8”x8” wood post into a 2-2”x6”x12” wood beam.3. Illustrate the roof framing layout (using wood rafters) for a 5.00m x 6.00m bungalow with gable roof profile.
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