1. FERROUS METAL AND NON-FERROUS METALAr. Rino D.A. Fernandez, uapClass Instructor
2. FERROUS METAL A metal containing iron as a primary material - Iron - Cast Iron - Steel - Stainless Steel - Wrought Iron
3. NON-FERROUS METAL A metal containing little or no iron - Aluminum - Bronze - Brass - Copper - Lead
4. IRON Iron is a metal extracted mainly from the iron ore hematite. It oxidizes readily in air and water to form Fe2O3 and is rarely found as a free element. Iron is believed to be the sixth most abundant element in the universe
5. SMELTING TECHNIQUE
6. Pig iron is the intermediate product of smeltingiron ore with coke and resinCast into pigs in preparation for conversion intocast iron, wrought iron or steelPig iron has a very high carbon content,typically 3.5 - 4.5%, which makes it very brittleand not useful directly as a material except forlimited applications
7. FERROUS METALS CAST IRON A hard, brittle, nonmalleable iron-based alloy containing 2%-4.5% carbon and 0.5%-3% silicon
8. FERROUS METALS CAST IRON APPLICATION: - Piping & Fittings - Ornamental Ironwork - Hardware - Base Metal for Porcelain Enameled Plumbing Fixtures - Floor & Wall Brackets for Railings - Circular Stairs - Manhole Cover - Gratings
9. FERROUS METALS WROUGHT IRON A tough, malleable, readily soft iron that is easily forged & welded. Fatigue & corrosion resistant Commercially pure iron, containing only approximately 0.2% carbon A fibrous material due to the slag inclusions, that gives it a "grain" resembling wood, which is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure
10. FERROUS METALS WROUGHT IRON Literally means “worked iron” APPLICATION: - Piping & Fittings for Plumbing, Heating & Air-conditioning - Ornamental Ironwork
11. FERROUS METALS GALVANIZED IRON (G.I.) Iron coated with zinc to prevent rust. The process is achieved thru hot-dip galvanizing
12. FERROUS METALS GALVANIZED IRON APPLICATION: - Metal Decking - Roofing & Accessories - Ceiling Framing - Wall Framing - Piping
13. FERROUS METALS STEEL Alloys of iron and carbon Carbon content is no more than 2% Alloy elements is composed of phosphorous, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, manganese, silicon, aluminum, copper, nickel, etc. Can be wrought, rolled, cast, and welded, but not extruded
14. FERROUS METALS ALLOY ELEMENTS & IT’S PURPOSE/S: 1. Aluminum for surface hardening 2. Chromium for corrosion resistance 3. Copper for resistance to atmospheric corrosion 4. Manganese in small amounts for hardening; in larger amounts for wear resistance 5. Molybdenum, combined with other alloying metals such as chromium & nickel, to increase corrosion resistance and to raise tensile strength without reducing ductility.
15. ALLOY ELEMENTS & IT’S PURPOSE/S:6. Nickel to increase tensile strength without reducingductility; in high concentrations, to improve corrosionresistance7. Silicon to strengthen low alloy steels and improveoxidation resistance; in larger amounts to provide hard,brittle castings resistant to corrosive chemicals8. Sulfur for free machining, especially in mild steels9. Titanium to prevent intergranular corrosion ofstainless steels10. Tungsten, vanadium, and cobalt for hardness andabrasion resistance
17. FERROUS METALS Carbon Steel Unalloyed steel in which the residual element as carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur and silicon are controlled. Any increase in carbon content increase the strength and hardness but reduces its ductility and weldability.
18. FERROUS METALS Carbon Steel APPLICATION: - Structural Steel - Concrete Reinforcement - Decking and Panels - Roofing & Accessories - Windows & Doors - Hardware
20. FERROUS METALS Stainless Steel An alloy steel containing a minimum of 12% chromium & additional nickel, manganese, and molybdenum alloy elements Resistance to heat, oxidation & corrosion Does not stain, corrode or rust as ordinary steel, but not stain-proof
22. FERROUS METALS HSLA (High-Strength Low-Alloy) Steel A group of low-carbon steels containing less than 2% alloys in a chemical composition specifically developed for increase strength, ductility, & resistance to corrosion Much stronger & tougher than ordinary carbon steel
23. FERROUS METALS HSLA Steel APPLICATION: - Reinforcement for Pre-stressed Concrete - High-strength Bolts - Special Structural Steel - Cables for Elevators
24. FERROUS METALS Weathering Steel A high-strength, low-alloy steel that forms an oxide coating when exposed to rain or moisture in the atmosphere Best-known under the trademark COR-TEN steel
25. FERROUS METALS Weathering SteelAngel of the North(20x54m),Gateshead,United Kingdom
26. FERROUS METALS Tools Steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly suited to be made into tools Distinctively hard, resistance to abrasion and deformation, and has ability to hold a cutting edge
27. NNON-FERROUS METALS Aluminum  Soft, non magnetic, ductile and malleable silvery white metal with thermal and electrical conductivity.  Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earths crust, and the third most abundant element therein, after oxygen and silicon. Used as structural framing like the high strength aluminum alloys and secondary building elements such as windows, doors, roofing, flashing, trim and hard wares.
28. CopperDuctile, malleable and bright reddish brown color withhigh thermal and electrical conductivity. Posses a “patina” weather reactive surface layer ofinsoluble green salt which retards corrosion and used toalloy bronze and brass to increase strength andcorrosion resistance.Used as electrical wiring,piping, flashing and roofingmaterial. Care must be takenin fastening, attaching orsupported only by selectedbrass fittings.
29. Brass Brass is any alloy of copper and zinc. It has a muted yellow color, somewhat similar to gold. It is relatively resistant to tarnishing, and is often used as decoration and for coins. In antiquity, polished brass was often used as a mirror.Lead Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal, also considered to be one of the heavy metals. Lead has a bluish white color when freshly cut, but tarnishes to a dull grayish color when it is exposed to air and is a shiny chrome silver when melted into a liquid. .
30. Lead pipe inRoman baths
31. Tungsten carbide, WC, or tungsten semicarbide,W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten andcarbon, similar to titanium carbide. Colloquially,tungsten carbide is often simply called carbide.
32. METAL JOINERY Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a relatively low melting point. (below 840deg F) Annealing In the cases of copper, steel, and brass this process is performed by substantially heating the material (until glowing) for a while and allowing it to cool slowly. The metal is softened and prepared for further work such as shaping, stamping, or forming.
33. Brazing is a joining process whereby a filler metal oralloy is heated to melting temperature above 450°C(842°F), or, by the traditional definition that has beenused in the United States, above 800°F (425°C) anddistributed between two or more close-fitting parts bycapillary action.Soldering is distinguished from brazing by use of alower melting-temperature filler metal; it isdistinguished from welding by the base metals notbeing melted during the joining process.
34. Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials,usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld puddle) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld.
35. A rivet is a mechanicalfastener. Before it is installed itconsists of a smooth cylindricalshaft with a head on one end.The end opposite the head iscalled the buck-tail. Blind rivets (also known as pop rivets) The rivet assembly is inserted into a hole drilled through the parts to be joined and a specially designed tool used to draw the mandrel into the rivet.
36. PROTECTING METALS Alclad is a trademark of Alcoa used as a generic term to describe corrosion resistant Aluminum sheet formed from high-purity aluminum surface layers metallurgically bonded to high strength Aluminum Alloy core material. These sheets commonly used by the aircraft industry Sherardising is a method of galvanizing also called vapor galvanizing. A layer of zinc is applied to the metal target object by heating the object in an airtight container with zinc powder. The temperature that the container reaches does not exceed the melting point of zinc. Another method of sherardisation is to expose the intended objects to vapor from molten zinc using a reducing gas to prevent oxidation.