Building insulation refers broadly to any object in abuilding used as insulation for any purpose. While themajority of insulation in buildings is for (1)thermal purposes,the term also applies to (2) acoustic insulation, (3) fireinsulation, and (4)impact insulation.Thermal insulation can refer to materials used toreduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods andprocesses used to reduce heat transfer.Heat or thermal conduction is thespontaneous transfer of thermal energy throughmatter to equalize temperature differences. It is alsodescribed as heat energy transferred from onematerial to another by direct contact.
Convection in the most generalterms refers to the movement ofmolecules within fluids
Radiation, as used in physics, is energy in the form ofwaves or moving subatomic particles emitted by an atomor other body as it changes from a higher energy state toa lower energy state.Ionizing radiation hasenough energy to ionizeatoms or moleculeswhile non-ionizingradiation does not.Radioactive material is aphysical material thatemits ionizing radiation.
The standard comfortable temperature ofinsulation required to keep a resting person warmin a windless room is at 70 °F (21.1 °C).In addition to environmental conditions, thermalcomfort depends on the clothing and activity level ofa person. The amount of clothing is measured against a standard amount that is roughly equivalent to a typical business suit, shirt, and undergarments. Activity level is compared to being seated quietly, such as in a classroom.
Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) InsulationA two component mixture comes together at the tip of agun, and forms an expanding foam that is sprayed ontoconcrete slabs, into wall cavities of an unfinished wall,against the interior side of sheathing, or through holesdrilled in sheathing or drywall into the wall cavity of afinished wall.sometimes also calledFoamed-In-PlaceInsulation
Rigid panels/InsulationRigid panel insulation is made from fibrous materials(fiberglass, rock and slag wool) or from plastic foam.They are sometimes sold in sections designed to fittightly in standard wall cavities.
Insulated Concrete FormsICFs are hollow, light-weight "stay in place"forms made of twoExpanded Polystyrene(EPS) panels which areconnected bypolypropylene webs.During construction, theforms are stacked to thedesired height then filledwith concrete makingstable, durable andsustainable walls.
Structural insulated panelsStructural insulated panels (SIPs), also called stressed-skin walls, use the same concept as in foam-core externaldoors, but extend the concept to the entire house. Theycan be used for ceilings, floors, walls, and roofs.The panels usuallyconsist of plywood,OSB, sandwichedaround a core ofexpanded polystyrene,polyurethane,polyisocyanurate,compressed wheatstraw, or epoxy.
Oriented strand board, (OSB) or Sterling board (UK),is an engineered wood product formed by layeringstrands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations.
Blanket Insulation– made from fibrous materials like mineral wool, woodfiber, cotton fiber or animal hair and manufactured to forma mat with thickness of ½” – 4 “ .Some installed with vinyl cardboard or wire mesh and isstapled to sides and edges of studs and joists.
Batt InsulationBatts are precut, whereasblankets are available incontinuous rolls.
Components of Batt and Blanket InsulationFiberglassis a material made from extremelyfine fibers of glass. Made frommolten glass, usually with 20% to30% recycled industrial waste andpost-consumer content.Rock and slag wool. Usuallymade from rock (basalt, diabase)or iron ore blast furnace slag.Some rock wool contains recycledglass. Nonflammable.
Loose FillCellulose is 100% natural and 75-85% of it is madefrom recycled newsprint.a. Fibrous Type – from mineral wool rock, glass wool,slag wool or vegetable fiber usually of wood fiber.b. Granular Insulationfrom expandedminerals like perlite,vermiculite or groundvegetable matter.
Reflective InsulationConsists of 2 layers of 99% aluminum foil laminated to theoutsides of 2 sheets of heavy-duty polyethylene air-bubblecushioning.
Corrugated Insulationfrom paper formed into shapes that produced enclosedair pockets into small regular semi – circularcorrugations and covering both sides with sheet of flatpaper to give strength and produce the air pockets.
Sound Insulation (Soundproofing) is any means of reducing the intensity of sound with respect to a specified source and receptor.Soundproofing affects soundin two different ways:noise reduction and noiseabsorption.
Fire Insulation (Fireproofing)refers to the act ofmaking materials or structures more resistant to fire, or tothose materials themselves, orthe act of applying suchmaterials.Example of spray fireproofing, usinga gypsum based plaster in a low-riseindustrial building.The plaster provides a layerof insulation to retard heat flow intostructural steel elements, that wouldotherwise lose their strength andcollapse in an accidental fire.