BUILDING STONESAr. Rino D.A. Fernandez, uapClass Instructor
Stone a natural, hard substance formed from minerals and earth material which are present in rocks.Rock the portion of the earth’s crust having no definite shape and structure
To qualify as a construction material, stoneshould have the following qualities:
Strength: Most types of stone have more than adequate compressive strength. The shear strength of stone, however, is usually about 1/10 of its compressive strength
Hardness: hardness is important when stone is used for flooring, paving, and stair treads.
Hardness:Talc, easily scratched with the thumb-nail: 1Gypsum, scratched by the thumb-nail: 2Calcite, not scratched by thumb-nail but easily cut by knife: 3Fluorite, can be cut by knife with greater difficulty than calcite: 4Apatite, can be cut only with difficulty by knife: 5Orthoclase, can be cut w/ knife w/ great difficulty on thin edges: 6Quartz, not scratched by steel, scratches glass: 7Topaz: 8Sapphire: 9Diamond: 10
Durability: Resistance to the weathering effects of rain, wind, heat, and frost action is necessary for exterior stonework
Workability: A stone’s hardness and grain texture must allow it to be quarried, cut and shaped
Density: A stone’s porosity affects its ability to withstand frost action and staining
Density:Porosity of Stones 24-hours Water Absorption of Stones by Volume
Appearance: Appearance factors include color, grain, and texture
CLASSIFICATION OF STONES (according to geological origin): Igneous rock Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rock
Igneous rock is formed by the crystallization of molten magma, as granite, obsidian and malachite
Igneous rock also known as primary, unstratified or eruptive rocks
Metamorphic rocks has undergone a change in structure, texture, or composition due to the natural agencies, as heat and pressure, especially when the rock becomes harder and more crystalline, as marble and slate
Metamorphic rocks: Examples of Transformation of Rocks
Sedimentary rock is formed by the deposition of sediment by glacial action, as limestone, sandstone and shale
Sedimentary rocks are also known as aqueous or stratified rocks
As a load bearing wall material, stone is similar to modular unit masonry. Although stone masonry is not necessarily uniform in size, its laid up with mortar and used in compression. Almost all stone is adversely affected by sudden changes in temperature and should not be used where a high degree of fire resistance is required.
Stone is used in construction in the following forms: Rubble Dimension stone Flagstone Crushed stone
Rubble - consists of rough fragments of broken stone that have at least one good face for exposure in a wall.
Dimension stone - is quarried and squared stone 2’ or more in length and width and of specified thickness, used commonly for wall panels, cornices, copings, lintels and flooring.
Flagstone - refers to flat stone slabs used for flooring and horizontal surfacing.
Crushed stone - is used as aggregate in concrete products.
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESArgillite – formed fromclay, dark blue with faintshades of green.Used for: floor tile stair threads coping stones interior wall base interior window stools of exterior window sills.
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESGranite – igneous origin,hard, strong, durable andcapable of taking highpressure polish. Red, pink,yellow, green, blue, whiteand brown.Used for: flooring wall paneling column mullion facing stair threads flagstone
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESLimestone – sedimentaryrock like dolomite, nocleavage lines, low inabsorption, smooth, uniformin structure & composition.High compressive & tensilestrengthUsed for: wall & floor surfaces
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESTravertine – sedimentary rock,pleasing texture with smallnatural pockets on a cutsurface.Used for: interior decorative stone
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESMarble – metamorphic rock, are crystallized limestoneforming into carrara, parian,onyx and vermont.Used for: flooring wall & column facing
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESSerpentine – igneous withmineral serpentine.Typically olive green togreenish black butimpurities may color therock.Used only for interiors due toweathering
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESSandstone – class ofrock of cemented silicagrains with textureranging from very fineto very coarse. Colorsvary from buff, red andlight brown. Porouswhere as 30% ofvolume composed ofpores
TYPES OF BUILDING STONESSlate Rock –metamorphosis of claysand shales deposited inlayers. May be separatedinto thin, tough sheetscalled slates . Colors areblack, green red, grey, orpurple.Used for: flooring window sills stools stair treads & facing
STONE CONSTRUCTIONLargely used as facing for building material with steel and concreteframes.Application Categories : 1. Paneling 2. Ashlars 3. Rubblework 4. Trim
Paneling – thin slabs of stone cut to dimension and thickness to cover back up walls and provide finished exterior Running Bond - a masonry bond formed when all units are laid in stretcher position, with a half-unit overlap
Paneling – thin slabs of stone cut to dimension and thickness to cover back up walls and provide finished exterior Stack Bond - a masonry bond formed when there is no overlapping of all units and all horizontal & vertical joints are aligned
Ashlars – work requires the use of cut stone that includes broken ashlars, regularly / irregularly coursed. Coursed Ashlar - Ashlar masonry laid out in courses of equal height; blocks of various sizes may be combined to make up the height of the course
Ashlars – work requires the use of cut stone that includes broken ashlars, regularly / irregularly coursed. Random Ashlar - Ashlar masonry laid without regular courses but with an overall effect of horizontal orientation
Rubblework – random & no attempt to produced an orderly course either horizontal or vertical.. Small spaces are filled with smaller stones. Coursed Rubble - Fieldstone or roughly dressed stone, with or without mortar, assembled to give a effect of courses
Rubblework – random & no attempt to produced an orderly course either horizontal or vertical.. Small spaces are filled with smaller stones. Fieldstone - Stone found on the ground (i.e., not quarried) that is a suitable size and shape for use as drywall or rubble masonry
Trim – stones cut for specific purposes like: jambs sills copings cornices lintels steps arch stone (voussoirs)
Rusticated - A term describing stone masonry with a recessed cut margin, so a channel is formed when the blocks are aligned
Sand Finish - A stone finish that is granular and moderately smooth, varying with the characteristics of the specific stone
Sawn Face - A term describing stone exhibiting the marks left by the saw used to cut it
Rock Face - A stone finish with emphasized face-plane shifts and rough corners, exaggerating the natural look of the stone
Split Face - A stone finish exhibiting the natural quarry texture resulting from splitting the stone
Cobble stone - A stone used in paving. It may be rectangular, or naturally rounded
Durex Blocks - Roughly cubed, usually granite blocks used for paving