Sa Idea Term (Logic Slide 2a)

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Sa Idea Term (Logic Slide 2a)

  1. 1. The Intellect and Its Operations The intellect is the spiritual knowing faculty of man. Man, according to Aristotelico-Thomistic philosophy, has two knowing cognitive faculties, the senses and the intellect. The intellect is the faculty of the soul, it enables man to know things that are abstract, immaterial and universal .
  2. 2. Acts of the Intellect The study of logic is commonly divided according to the three acts or operations of the intellect, namely: Simple Apprehension Judgement Reasoning
  3. 3. Acts of the Intellect The Acts/Operations of the Intellect Predicability (noun) - quality that describes something: a quality or attribute by which somebody or something can be described ( formal ) [Mid-16th century. From medieval Latin praedicabilis , from Latin praedicare. Predication (noun)- state something: to state or assert something ( formal ) [Mid-16th century. From late Latin praedicatum , from the past participle of Latin praedicare ‘to declare publicly’, literally ‘to declare before’, from dicare ‘to state’.]
  4. 4. SIMPLE APPREHENSION is the first act of the intellect allowing it to know the essence or nature of the thing without affirming or denying anything about it through this, the intellect forms a mental image of the thing called - IDEA Apprehension is the beginning of knowledge. It is when we have an understanding or an idea of things that we can say we know. SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  5. 5. IDEA is the mental product of the apprehension It is the mental/intellectual image/representation of the object, because it represents the object/thing in the intellect. THE FORMATION OF IDEA One important aspect in the process of knowing is the process of ABSTRACTION . It is defined as the process by which the intellect “strips” the object of its non-essential qualities, retains the essential ones, and forms them into one image, which is the - IDEA The process of abstraction is an important concept in the theory of knowledge of Aristotle and St. Thomas for it explains why the intellect, an spiritual knowing faculty could know a material object. SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  6. 6. IDEA - CHARACTERISTICS UNIVERSAL SPIRITUAL CONSTANT applicable to all object falling under its comprehension it exist in the intellect it cannot be changed since, once the idea is changed, it is no longer the idea of the same thing SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  7. 7. TERM the external manifestation or sign of an idea Idea exists in the mind, but when expressed or manifested either written or spoken, it then becomes a - TERM . a sensible conventional sign expressive of an idea sensible conventional sign expressive perceptible through the senses usual, accepted, customary symbol, mark made known clearly or explicitly, directly stated or represented, precise SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  8. 8. LOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IDEA Comprehension Extension is the sum total of the attributes or thought - elements which constitute the idea It is the meaning, the signification, the thought-content or connotation of the idea. is the sum total of all individuals, things or beings or group to which the idea can be applied It expresses denotation or the application of the idea to different individuals or things. When one asks for the definition of the term, the answer falls under comprehension. When an example is asked, the answer falls under extension. SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  9. 9. Inverse Relation Between Comprehension And Extension: AS THE COMPREHENSION OF THE IDEA INCREASES, THE EXTENSION DECREASES AND VICE VERSA. It means that, if the conceptual features of an idea increase, the application of the idea will decrease. Comprehension Example: Extension Filipinos All naturalized & natural born citizen of the Philippines. Male Filipinos Applies only to the male citizens of this country. Adult Male Filipinos Applies only to male citizens of the country who have reached the age of 21. SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  10. 10. Exercises: State w/c term of each of the following pairs has greater comprehension (unless the comprehension of each is identical) a. “Triangle” and “Figure” b. “Triangle” and “Plane figure bounded by 3 straight lines” c. “Triangle” and “Plane figure bounded by 3 straight lines, w/c enclose 3 interior angles that are equal to two right angles ” d. “Triangle” and “Isosceles triangle” e. “Dog” and “Animal” Arrange the terms in the order of increasing comprehension: a. Rectangle d. Rectilinear plane figure b. Figure e. Square c. Plane Figure f. Parallelogram SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  11. 11. Arrange the terms in the order of increasing extension: a. Dog d. Mammal b. Organism e. Vertebrate c. Cocker Spaniel f. Material Substance g. Animal SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION OF TERM ACCORDING TO MEANING 1.) UNIVOCAL 3.) ANALOGOUS 2.) EQUIVOCAL SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF TERM ACCORDING TO MEANING 1.) UNIVOCAL It expresses only one meaning when applied to several objects A term maybe univocal if it falls under the following conditions: A term that is used in an identical sense. a.) The term has no other possible meaning. b.) The term used is defined. c.) The term used are taken to signify one meaning in two instances. SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION OF TERM ACCORDING TO MEANING 2.) EQUIVOCAL They maybe externally the same, but different in sense. They may be equivocal in: A term that expresses two or more different or unrelated meaning. a.) Pronunciation (e.g.: son - sun, sweet - suite, pane - pain) b.) Spelling (e.g.: bow - bow, live - live) c.) Both in spelling and pronunciation (e.g.: club - club, watch - watch, ball - ball) SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  15. 15. CLASSIFICATION OF TERM ACCORDING TO MEANING 3.) ANALOGOUS Term may be analogous by: A term that expresses a meaning that is partly different and partly the same or meaning that are related. a.) Proportion (i.e.: when a term is applied to unlike objects because of some resemblance between them - “foot” could be used as “foot of the mountain” or “foot of the stairs” b.) Attribution (i.e.: when the term is used in an absolute sense in one thing and attributed in another things because of some intrinsic relation with the first - “healthy” could be attributed to medicine, body, exercise, food as when we say “healthy body”, “healthy food”, or “healthy exercise”. SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  16. 16. CLASSIFICATION OF TERM ACCORDING TO EXTENSION 1.) SINGULAR 3.) PARTICULAR 2.) UNIVERSAL 4.) COLLECTIVE SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  17. 17. CLASSIFICATION OF TERM ACCORDING TO EXTENSION 1.) SINGULAR Term is singular when it is a: A singular term is one that applies to only one individual or object.. a.) Proper noun (e.g.: University of Santo Tomas, Republic of the Philippines, etc.) b.) A term prefixed by demonstrative pronoun (e.g.: that man, this book, etc.) c.) A term with restrictive qualification (e.g.: the Dean of the College, the first President of the Philippines, etc.) SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  18. 18. 2.) UNIVERSAL Universal terms are usually prefixed by terms like: all, every, no, each and none. A universal term is one that is applied distributively to all individual or objects in a class or to the class itself. 3.) PARTICULAR A particular term is one that applies to only a part of the extension of the universal. Particular terms are usually prefixed by terms like: some, few, several, majority, many, and a number of.. 4.) COLLECTIVE A collective term is one that applies to a collective idea. It represents a group or class but does not apply distributively to the individuals in the class or group like: family, team, organization. SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM
  19. 19. EXERCISE: 4. A man (is running down the street). State whether the following term is singular, particular or universal 2. Man (is rational animal). 3. Dean Augusto Concio. 1. All men (are rational animals). 5. Whoever is in this room (is welcome). 6. Anything that’s made of wood (is combustible). 7. A few students (were absent from the class). 8. The Republic of the Philippines. 9. Four herds of carabaos. 10. All Filipinos (are human beings). SIMPLE APPREHENSION, IDEA AND TERM

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