DEFINITION OF PHILOSOPHY <ul><li>ETYMOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>REAL </li></ul>
ETYMOLOGICAL DEFINITION The term “PHILOSOPHY” came from two Greek words: LOVE <ul><li>WISDOM </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWLEDGE </li></ul>Love of wisdom or knowledge. Greek Philosopher - PLATO coined the word PHILOSOPHIA or PHILOSOPHY PHILOS SOPHIA
REAL DEFINITION Traditionally “ the science of all things or beings in their ultimate causes and principles known by human reason alone”
REAL DEFINITION It is a “ science ” because it is a body of knowledge derived from reasoned demonstration of causes and reduced to a system. It is the science “ of all things or beings ” because it studies all things or realities which can be reached by the human mind. It is the science of all things or beings “ in their ultimate causes and principles ” because it studies and tries to understand the underlying reasons and causes of things. It is the science of all things or being in their ultimate causes and principles “ known by human reason alone ” because it based its knowledge solely on man’s reasoning power and not on authority or faith.
BENEFITS FROM STUDYING PHILOSOPHY enables us to systematize all important knowledge in the domain of reason guides us in distinguishing truth from error and in searching for the truth provides us with the ability to analyze and the “intellectual eye” to see things not only as they are, but also the underlying causes and meaning of things around us or happen around us.
guides us in our search for the cause and meaning of our life and our existence BENEFITS FROM STUDYING PHILOSOPHY gives us insights about our nature as human beings, it helps us understand better ourselves, and help develop or improve ourselves
DIVISION OF HUMAN SCIENCES SPECULATIVE SCIENCE PRACTICAL SCIENCE PRODUCTIVE SCIENCE
SPECULATIVE SCIENCE The science that seek knowledge for the sake of knowledge. It is the science that is concerned with things that are theoretical. >> Logic >> Epistemology >> Metaphysics >> Theodicy >> Cosmology >> Psychology The sciences that fall under this category are:
PRACTICAL SCIENCE The science that seeks knowledge for the sake of proper conduct of human life. It is the science that is concerned with the practical application of knowledge to man’s life and conduct. The sciences falling under this category are: >> Ethics >> Politics >> Aesthetics
PRODUCTIVE SCIENCE The science that seeks knowledge for the sake of producing and providing for the human needs. It is concerned with technical and mechanical skills, for example: >> Engineering >> Architecture >> Advertising >> Agriculture
BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY LOGIC the art & science of correct inferential thinking COSMOLOGY OR PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE the science of the nature of the world RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY the science of the nature of man, his powers, acts and habits EPISTEMOLOGY OR CRITICS OR CRITERIOLOGY the science of the validity of human knowledge ONTOLOGY OR GENERAL METAPHYSICS the science of beings in their general forms
BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY ETHICS OR MORAL PHILOSOPHY the study of the morality of human acts THEODICY OR SPECIAL METAPHYSICS the philosophical study of the nature and attributes of God AESTHETICS the science of arts and beauty SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY the science of the sociality of man and nature of society
LOGIC enables us to think in a rational, systematic and orderly way ETYMOLOGICAL DEFINITION logike Greek term means thought A “treatise pertaining to thought”.
LOGIC ETYMOLOGICAL DEFINITION Zeno the Stoic Aristotle the tool or instrument of the science s LOGIC “ ORGANON” first coined the word Logic is the instrument for gaining knowledge or the tool for correct thinking. book - “ANALYTICS”
LOGIC REAL DEFINITION commonly defined as the art & science of correct inferential thinking deals with the laws, methods and principles of correct thinking Irving Copi describes Logic as the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning. >> Thus it provides us with the techniques for testing the correctness (and also the incorrectness) of arguments.
LOGIC REAL DEFINITION as a SCIENCE . . . It is a systematized body of knowledge about the principles and laws of correct inferential thinking. It follows certain rules and laws in arriving at valid conclusions.
as an ART . . . The art of reasoning. It requires mastery of the laws and principles of correct inferential thinking. LOGIC REAL DEFINITION Through Logic, we acquire the techniques and skill of thinking correctly whereby our mind is able to proceed with order, ease and without error, when we master the techniques and acquire the skill of correct thinking then we are able to expound our thought orderly, clearly and systematically.
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