11/02/2009 // With Nadine Fouchy, Camélia Talib, Ulrich Jambrin-Rozier, Benoit Geoffroy, Et Chrisophe Le Soulan.
Does atti...
Introduction
✤ The purpose of the chosen article and research underlined :
✤ Conceptual understanding of the loyalty pheno...
The idea proposed by Dick and Basu (1994) in two ways
✤ Segmenting the market on the basis of attitudes that govern this
b...
Two types of loyalty
✤ Attitudinal loyalty : higher-order, or long-term, commitment of a
customer to the organization that...
Theorical perspective
๏ Consumer loyalty is characterized by a favorable attitude* and
repeat purchase.
๏ The brand attitu...
Theorical perspective
๏ Dick and Basu (1994) - a theorical perspective :
๏ A favorable attitude and repeat purchase were r...
Which methodology(ies) have
been used in the article ?
✤ Identify studies, research and then criticize this allows targeti...
Which methodology(ies) have
been used in the article ?
✤ Offer a unique way to measure attitudinal behavior ;
✤ Determine ...
Study
✤ 1096 panelists on ten major brands of
toothpoaste in June 2000 with eight
behavioral questions to measure the
resp...
Results
Brand Single users Multiple users Non-users
Aquafresh Original 36 117 943
Colgate Original 43 141 912
Colgate Tart...
Results
✤ Single users of the Crest brand (both original and tartar) demonstrate
a much stronger attitude than other brand...
Results
✤ First, the approach to measure both attitudinal loyalty and behavioral
loyalty offers more managerial insights t...
Managerial implications
✤ Non users may not buy a given brand for several reasons such as
non-availability of the brand or...
Managerial implications
✤ The approach to segment customers into a single user, multiple user
and non-user categoeries hel...
Limits of the study
mardi 10 février 2009
Toothpaste not a good example
Difficult to speak about loyalty :
• According to marketing studies, women buy for all the fa...
A limited survey
✤ Difficult for the respondent to remember exactly the number of
purchases for a brand over a period of se...
Does the article confirm what we
have learned before ?
✤ Personnal factor: 2 types: individual and group traits
✤ Culture ...
Does the article contradict what
we have learned before ?
✤ The studies did not give enough importance to the data market
...
Do you have any suggestions on
interesting issues for further
research based on the results
presented in the article ?
!"#...
Suggestions
✤ The frequency of purchase ;
✤ The price ;
✤ The products are of family use ;
✤ The consumers are faithful to...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Smoothpastes, Study, Loyalty

383 views
315 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
383
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Smoothpastes, Study, Loyalty

  1. 1. 11/02/2009 // With Nadine Fouchy, Camélia Talib, Ulrich Jambrin-Rozier, Benoit Geoffroy, Et Chrisophe Le Soulan. Does attitudinal loyalty influence behavioral loyalty ? A theorical and empirical study Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services mardi 10 février 2009
  2. 2. Introduction ✤ The purpose of the chosen article and research underlined : ✤ Conceptual understanding of the loyalty phenomenon. ✤ The relations and the link between attitudinal Loyalty and Behavioral Loyalty. ✤ Many researchers have defined brand loyalty only from a behavioral perspective ⇨ Repeat purchasing can capture the loyalty of a consumer towards the brand of interest. ✤ Researchers Dick and Basu (1994) : ✤ Attitude should be included along with behavior to define loyalty ✤ A favorable attitude and repeat purchase were required to define loyalty. mardi 10 février 2009
  3. 3. The idea proposed by Dick and Basu (1994) in two ways ✤ Segmenting the market on the basis of attitudes that govern this behavior. ✤ Unique way to measure attitudinal loyalty. ✤ Unique survey data with a large sample of respondents (1800) that includes both behavioral (purchase) patterns and attitudes of the respondents for all major brands of toothpaste ✤ To demonstrate that behavioural loyalty is influenced by attitudinal loyalty across many brands of the toothpaste category. ✤ a third behavioural pattern — non-user — should be included along with two known behavioral patterns: single user and multiple user. ✤ ⇨ a non-user has the potential to become a consumer in future. mardi 10 février 2009
  4. 4. Two types of loyalty ✤ Attitudinal loyalty : higher-order, or long-term, commitment of a customer to the organization that cannot be inferred by merely observing customer repeat purchase behavior. It indicates propensity to display certain behaviors, such as the likelihood of future usage. ✤ Behavioral loyalty : refers to customer’s (intentions to) repeat purchases from an organization, their willingness to recommend the organization, and less price sensitivity. ➡It focuses on the “value of the customer to the brand”. mardi 10 février 2009
  5. 5. Theorical perspective ๏ Consumer loyalty is characterized by a favorable attitude* and repeat purchase. ๏ The brand attitude will be stronger when consumers associate more number of attributes with the brand. mardi 10 février 2009
  6. 6. Theorical perspective ๏ Dick and Basu (1994) - a theorical perspective : ๏ A favorable attitude and repeat purchase were required to define loyalty. By viewing loyalty as an attitude – behaviour relationship in their framework – they were able to investigate the concept from a causal perspective, permitting the identification of the factors that influence loyalty. ๏ Alba and Marmorstein (1987) : ๏ The net number of positive attributes towards a brand could influence judgment and choice if no other information is available. ๏ Theory of automation (Hasher and Zacks, 1979 & 1984), the frequency information acts continually cannot be improved by practice, cannot be inhibited, does not require conscious awareness and drains minimal cognitive resources. mardi 10 février 2009
  7. 7. Which methodology(ies) have been used in the article ? ✤ Identify studies, research and then criticize this allows targeting the subject in depth in order to respond with greater precision ✤ Two different approaches : ✤ Theorical framework ✤ Empirical valdiation/ observation mardi 10 février 2009
  8. 8. Which methodology(ies) have been used in the article ? ✤ Offer a unique way to measure attitudinal behavior ; ✤ Determine more pecisly the influence on the behavioral loyalty ; ✤ Using a chronological approach. mardi 10 février 2009
  9. 9. Study ✤ 1096 panelists on ten major brands of toothpoaste in June 2000 with eight behavioral questions to measure the respondents’ usage patterns and their satisfaction towars various brands over a period of six months. mardi 10 février 2009
  10. 10. Results Brand Single users Multiple users Non-users Aquafresh Original 36 117 943 Colgate Original 43 141 912 Colgate Tartar 25 85 986 Crest Original 49 217 830 Crest Tartar 105 415 576 mardi 10 février 2009
  11. 11. Results ✤ Single users of the Crest brand (both original and tartar) demonstrate a much stronger attitude than other brands. ✤ This means that the brand loyal consumers of Crest are more strongly opinionated in favor of their brand than their counterparts for other brands. ✤ This indicates the existence of double jeopardy in the product category wherein the small brands not only suffer from a narrow customer base but also from less purchase frequency compared to the large brand. mardi 10 février 2009
  12. 12. Results ✤ First, the approach to measure both attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty offers more managerial insights than measuring either type of loyalty independently. ➡ Non-users of a brand may be an important target market (particularly with a strong positive attitude towards the brand) mardi 10 février 2009
  13. 13. Managerial implications ✤ Non users may not buy a given brand for several reasons such as non-availability of the brand or lack of awareness of the band. ✤ How brands can change that ? ✤ They can offer free samples to the non-users to introduce them to switch or to retainmost of them (single or multiple users) or re- evaluate the distribution strategy including relationalship with the retailers, and co-operative marchandising strategies. mardi 10 février 2009
  14. 14. Managerial implications ✤ The approach to segment customers into a single user, multiple user and non-user categoeries helps brand managers to devise segment- specific marketing strategies ✤ Examples : ✤ Single users should be targeted with market penetrations strategies ✤ Multiple users should be targeted with strategies that highlight the strenghts of his band vis-à-vis competing brands mardi 10 février 2009
  15. 15. Limits of the study mardi 10 février 2009
  16. 16. Toothpaste not a good example Difficult to speak about loyalty : • According to marketing studies, women buy for all the familly and don’t remember the last toothpaste purchase ; • A very important choice ; • Toothpastes packagings change every 6 months. mardi 10 février 2009
  17. 17. A limited survey ✤ Difficult for the respondent to remember exactly the number of purchases for a brand over a period of several months ✤ For the attributes questions, the responses (yes/no) can’t capture the degree of confidence mardi 10 février 2009
  18. 18. Does the article confirm what we have learned before ? ✤ Personnal factor: 2 types: individual and group traits ✤ Culture provides an important level of decision making ✤ Mechanisms of learning : especially about managerial implications and conceptual Development mardi 10 février 2009
  19. 19. Does the article contradict what we have learned before ? ✤ The studies did not give enough importance to the data market environment and market traits mardi 10 février 2009
  20. 20. Do you have any suggestions on interesting issues for further research based on the results presented in the article ? !"#$%&'()*"+" ",-""#./0/11$"2'0'3'04"5$'%62'7(" 89(':;/%4"<.7/=&)1.$",9%'7)-'"" mardi 10 février 2009
  21. 21. Suggestions ✤ The frequency of purchase ; ✤ The price ; ✤ The products are of family use ; ✤ The consumers are faithful to the store. mardi 10 février 2009

×