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1 pharmacy computer services(1)

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  • Chip : صغير : رقائق صغيرة

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  • 1. Services Available with Pharmacy Computer Systems Prepared by Lecturer/ Mohamed Anwar Hammad Ali B.Sc.Pharm (Honor degree), M.Pharm(Clin.Pharmcy) Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy King Khalid University Saudi Arabia Kingdom CPH-422
  • 2. Objectives 1. Knowing the computers components 2. Discuss the difference uses of computer in pharmacy services 3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer using in pharmacy services 4. Evaluation the need for computer implementation in the pharmacy services
  • 3. Introduction • A computer is an electronic device that has a processor and memory devices • A processor is the brain of a computer system that runs a program • Computers need memory devices so that they can remember things • Short term memory is to help the processor remember things as it is doing its job (this is a type of memory called RAM and stands for Random Access Memory) • Long term memory so the computer can store information to be accessed much later on (example being a hard drive)
  • 4. Introduction cont…… • As with most health-care processes, pharmacy operations have been significantly changed by the advent of digital and computing technology. • Computers are used for various tasks within a pharmacy, both in terms of how pharmacists carry out their duties and handle patients. • Pharmacy computing systems make use of resources, such as the Internet, although many pharmacies use custom-made software systems to carry out their daily activities.
  • 5. - First commercial system in 1950 - It large need large floor space ( vacuum tubes, more difficult part composition) - Second computer technology in 1960 - it become smaller - it more compact economically →→ major businesses - remained too expensive - In 1970 wholesales drugs, pharmaceutical manufactures, drug stores, drugs data for businesses - In 1980 Fourth generation of computers, it become reach of the retail pharmacy. Then, the computer develop the microprocessing “chip” →→ more chips →→ it produced low cost HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
  • 6. Basic Components of A Computerized Data Processing System
  • 7. All computerized data processing systems have three basic components 1- A central processing unit (CPU) 2- A device or devices that permit information input and output; not part of CPU 3- An information storage device (external data storage unit)
  • 8. SERVICES AVAILABLE WITH PHARMACY COMPUTER SYSTEMS COMPUTER CAN DO ANYTHINGS YOU WANT IT TO DO. • The pharmacy owner can choose which services he wants and needs, thereby tailoring his data processing system to his own budgetary considerations. • The pharmacy owner should let the pharmacy’s needs determine the criteria for which services will be offered.
  • 9. A Partial List of The Typical Available Services
  • 10. A Partial List of The Typical Available Services 1. Prescription Filling 2. Prescription Refilling 3. E_ Prescribing 4. Prescription Processing 5. Patient Counseling 6. Patient Profile 7. Drug-drug interactions 8. Tax and Insurance Reports 9. Third Party Programs 10. Nursing Home Reports 11. Accounts Receivable 12. Pricing Formulas 13. Control Substance Records 14. Stock movement reports
  • 11. A Partial List of The Typical Available Services cont. 15. Merchandise Control Reports 16. Electronic Order Entry 17. Permanent Shelf Labels 18. Customized Price Stickers 19. Daily and Monthly Log 20. Management Reports 21. Communication 22. Information 23. Databases 24. Patient Management 25. Scheduling 26. Error Prevention 27. Medical Claims 28. Miscellaneous services
  • 12. • Patient name, doctor name, drug name, quantity, prescription number; prints the label, calculates the price, discount, etc. 1. Prescription Filling
  • 13. 2. Prescription Refilling • Pharmacist enter data regarding the prescription if data not available to avoid any warning message appears if the prescription is out of data
  • 14. 3. E_ Prescribing • E-prescriptions are computer-generated prescriptions created by healthcare provider and sent directly to pharmacy. • E-prescriptions are sent electronically through a private, secure, and closed network • E-prescriptions are: 1. Fast - Your prescription arrives at your pharmacy before you leave your doctor’s office. 2. Convenient - You don’t have to make that extra trip to drop off your prescription at the pharmacy. 3. Legible - There is no handwriting for the pharmacist to interpret. 4. Economical - makes it easier for your doctor to prescribe the most cost effective medication based on your insurance coverage
  • 15. 4. Prescription Processing • Prescription processing is invariably one of the main activities going on within a pharmacy on a day-to-day basis, and computers are used to make this process more reliable and efficient. • Both the customer service side of pharmacy operation and the dispensing aspect are today carried out through the use of computing systems. • Pharmacy computers also handle customer service activities such as sales and cash handling within the retail operation.
  • 16. 5. Patient Counseling • Pharmacist can print counseling handout, prescription label and invoice. • Also handout contains any information the patient might need to know regarding precautions or side effects of the medication
  • 17. 6. Patient Profile • Pharmacist can updated patient profile whenever a new prescription is filled. • Also if the patient might have any symptoms like allergies, it should be added to patient profile
  • 18. 7. Drug-drug interactions • There is program regarding this point, this provided from many vendors offer programs for drug interaction. • The pharmacist must check the patient’s profile and prescription to determined if there is interaction
  • 19. 8. Tax and Insurance Reports • This point must be asked to do, so the pharmacist can print the data for medical expense. • Listing the information patient needs to file tax return or insurance claims
  • 20. 9. Third Party Programs • The pharmacist enters the patient’s identification number for verification and updating, thereby reducing the possibility for error and often speeding the payment procedure
  • 21. 10. Nursing Home Reports • Some information must be added by nursing home administrators, including physician order sheet, unit dose filling profile, medication administration records, and consultant pharmacist evaluation
  • 22. 11. Accounts Receivable • This offer from vendor of computerized data processing. In most systems the account can be aged may 30 or 60 or day
  • 23. 12. Pricing Formulas • The program is available for select specific formulas for pricing medication. • It include stander structure for pricing
  • 24. 13. Control Substance Records • This for controlled substance items that order during period, along with quantities and dosages
  • 25. 14. Stock movement reports • This depend on how much of drugs taken from previous inventory and this allowing to pharmacy manager to minimizing the actual inventory investment
  • 26. 15. Merchandise Control Reports • This point to know the goods move fast or slow, also provide information for pricing decisions and judges for entire store's performance
  • 27. 16. Electronic Order Entry • Now the wholesalers provide for other pharmacies interface with their central computers to order new medications. • Also pharmacy’s employees take inventory of the shelf stock using optical scanner to read and record product codes and quantities
  • 28. 17. Permanent Shelf Labels • In-addition, wholesalers provide shelf labels containing the product description, item number, size, fine-line code, universal product code bars and other information
  • 29. 18. Customized Price Stickers • Wholesalers supply price stickers, also sticker include other information (quantity ordered item number, cost and date of merchandise order)
  • 30. 19. Daily and Monthly Log • Computer program can provide a pharmacy with a timely, precise review of prescriptions broken out into prescription number, patient type, gross profit margins and other information.
  • 31. 20. Management Reports • There is a lot of different types of reports can help the pharmacy manager in his practice and his business. • These like, accounting, payroll administration, cost and financial analysis market analysis, budgeting, sales forecasting and investment analysis
  • 32. 21. Communication • Computers are used within pharmacies to facilitate communication. • From email to other Internet-based messaging systems, online communication allows pharmacists and other pharmacy staff to keep in contact both within their own organization and within the professional community. • Some pharmacy companies have their own Intranet systems for internal communications over the Internet.
  • 33. 22. Information • Having access to the Web via pharmacy computers is something that has enhanced the ability of pharmacists to carry out their duties to a higher standard. • As well as giving the pharmacy staff access to the vast store of information that is available on the Internet, including those on specialist pharmacy resources, the Internet connects pharmacists to their peers on a global scale. • Professional communities for pharmacists operate on-line, creating an atmosphere that is conducive to professional development.
  • 34. 23. Databases • Computer databases for information about medicines, and medical treatment in general, are used within pharmacies. • These database systems allow pharmacy staff to find out information about any potential conflicts or health- care problems in a prescribed treatment, as well as information about the details of any particular medicine the pharmacist needs to know more about. • This information may include ingredients and potential effects as well as research and scientific data.
  • 35. 24. Patient Management • Health care clinicians and administrators alike are showing enthusiasm for one of the medical field's newest technological trends: patient information management systems. • These electronic systems serve as a database for storing patient files. Information can be easily added, changed, deleted, printed or audited by clicking a few buttons on the computer. • Pharmacists do not have to store or carry around health records any longer, because all they need is access to a computer or laptop to pull up patient information.
  • 36. 25. Scheduling • When a patients call a pharmacy to make an order, the representative who answers the phone can schedule them through the use of a computer appointment scheduling system. • These electronic systems allow front office staff to add, delete or change appointments with the click of a mouse. If there is more than one order, schedules can be sorted by Pharmacist, as well as be color-coded to indicate it when the order be available.
  • 37. 26. Error Prevention • Pharmacy computer systems can help to prevent errors in medication, potentially saving lives and generally preserving the health of patients. • As well as checking medicines and combinations of medicines, these systems can in some cases check on patient information. • The availability of such systems varies across the different geographical areas, but in some cases pharmacy computers are able to check on prescribed medicines with specific reference to a patient and their overall health-care picture.
  • 38. 27. Medical Claims • Computers are what health care companies are using to submit, review, process and pay medical claims, according to a 2006 article by the Healthcare Financial Management Association. • Health technology trends indicate that more and more companies are relying on computers to submit their claims, rather than submitting them via hard copy, because computers expedite the process. • Information management engineers have created systems and technology tools that make the claims process of the medical field more efficient and easy to use.
  • 39. 28. Miscellaneous services • The pharmacy manager can take advantage of numerous miscellaneous services offered by wholesalers. • These services include some reports regarding new items, price changes, special offers and special discounts.
  • 40. Advantages & Disadvantages of Computers in a Local Pharmacy
  • 41. Advantage: Accessibility • The biggest advantage that can be achieved by computers is enhanced efficiency. • In a pharmaceutical setting, if the pharmacist wants to look up a patient's prescription history or fill/renew a prescription, he can do it in seconds, simply by entering the customer's name. • This is faster than the traditional way, which consisted of riffling through filing cabinets until the customer's folder was found. • This also makes keeping track of prescriptions easier. For example, using a computer, pharmacists can tell exactly when a certain prescription was filled.
  • 42. Advantage: Customer Time Savings • Computers speed the efficiency of dropping off and picking up prescriptions. • But they can also help customers choose over-the-counter, or OTC, drugs. For example, according to an April 2008 ABC article "Computer Kiosks Aid Pharmacy Needs," kiosk-like computers have been launched in pharmacies that allow customers to plug in their signs and symptoms. • The computer will then recommend which OTC medicine might be best for their particular condition. This saves the customer the time it would take to browse through the various brands and labels in the store.
  • 43. Advantage: Improving Patient Compliance • Community pharmacies can use their computer systems and direct patient access to deliver a quality and breadth of patient care unavailable anywhere else. • Pharmacy computer systems are already being used extensively for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) with other business and trading partners. • These EDI capabilities are being expanded to help pharmacies become far more useful in providing the most cost effective treatment for patients.
  • 44. Disadvantage: Hacking • One disadvantage of using computers anywhere, let alone in a local pharmacy, is that they're susceptible to being hacked. • According to the Mount Airy News article "Local Pharmacy Computers Hacked," most hackers target pharmacies to steal data for financial gain or for malicious purposes such as spreading viruses. • However, a potentially more serious threat is acquiring the personal information of customers, which is data that is typically stored in such computers. • By hacking a pharmacy's computer, one may be able to see a customer's medical history, address and other confidential information.
  • 45. Disadvantage: Training • A downside to computers is that when such technology is introduced into a work environment, the employees there need to be able to properly use it. This requires training, which can take time and cost money. • According to the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, while many have a basic knowledge of computers from work and school, many lack experience using spreadsheets, managing a database, retrieving medical information and working with other specialized programs, such as would be done in a pharmaceutical setting. • If employees aren't properly trained to use the equipment, then the enhanced efficiency of using the technology is no longer present.
  • 46. A system analysis approach to implementing computerization or process for evaluating computer system A- Needs assessment: What pharmacy services are involved. In assessing needs must be follow the following 1- Tasks and services the pharmacy currently performs 2- Tasks and services the pharmacy would like to perform at some point in the future 3- The quality of services currently provided in the future 4- The actual patient or customer demand for those services. Assessing the pharmacy’s needs, the manager can take the first step in selecting the best system for the pharmacy’s business and service level.
  • 47. B- Determination of benefits What can we expect to gain quantitatively and qualitatively by implementing a computer system? • The pharmacy manager try to quantify the benefit, i.e manager must try to express this benefit in dollars and cents savings to his pharmacy practice. • The pharmacy manager should realize the immediate achievement of all the benefits is probably not possible • Evaluation of all available systems • More service quality for customers
  • 48. What is the probability that the benefits and costs will be realized with each particular system? • After the potential benefits and their cost savings have evaluated, the pharmacy manager should take a close look at the computer market to see what systems are available and how much they cost C- System selection • Which system will maximize the benefit/cost ratio? • The eventual choice for a pharmacy data-processing system should be the one that meets the pharmacy’s needs while maximizing the benefit to cost ratio
  • 49. E- Implementation and evaluation • How can we systematically initiate and constantly evaluate the system? • It is important for every worker to become familiar with the new data processing system before it is used on a day to day basis • The pharmacy manager should be the first to learn the operational procedures to be active participate in the training process. • The big problem with implementing a new computer system is negative worker reaction
  • 50. Reference • Effective pharmacy management, Marion Merrell Dow Inc.
  • 51. THANK YOU