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At lecture for fresh(wo)men on learning theories, learning theories and language learning, using Twitter for language learning, building a personal learning environment in 10 minutes, building a ...

At lecture for fresh(wo)men on learning theories, learning theories and language learning, using Twitter for language learning, building a personal learning environment in 10 minutes, building a personal learning environment in 10 seconds, Artificial Intelligence for learning support.
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Sjtu221107 Sjtu221107 Presentation Transcript

  • Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0 Kerstin Borau Carsten Ullrich Photo by Lutz-R. Frank
  • Kerstin Borau/ Carsten Ullrich
    • Kerstin Borau
    • Master degree in Applied English Linguistic
    • Certified foreign language teacher.
    • English/German teacher at SJTU Network Education College
    • Research interests: Computer Assisted Foreign Language Learning, new technologies and approaches in Language Learning
    • Carsten Ullrich
    • PhD in Computer Science at Saarland University
    • 2004-2007 researcher at the DFKI (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence) , one of the largest AI research institutes worldwide
    • Now researcher at E-Learning Lab of SJTU
    • About 50 publications in the area of Artificial Intelligence and Education
    • Research interests: Artificial Intelligence, technology-enhanced learning, Semantic Web, Web 2.0
  • Overview
    • Learning Theories
    • Learning Theories and Language Learning
    • Tools for Active Learning
    • Artificial Intelligence for Learner Support
  • Learning Theories
  • Timeline of Learning Theories By Serhat Kurt
  • Behaviorism (1910)
      • How do you react?
      • Stimulus-Response coupling
      • Psychology should deal with objective, observable subject matter  behavior
      • Skinner (1904-1990)
          • The Technology of Learning (1968)
  • Behaviorism: Programmed Instruction (1950)
    • Principles:
      • Positively reinforced behavior will reoccur  “Praise is good for learning!”
      • Break down complex skills in small bits
      • Teach each bit separately
    • Knowledge is given and absolute
  • Programmed Instruction: Example
    • The important parts of a flashlight are the battery and the bulb. When we "turn on" a flashlight, we close a switch which connects the battery with the _______ .
      • bulb
    • When we turn on a flashlight, an electric current flows through the fine wire in the _______ and causes it to grow hot.
      • bulb
    • When the hot wire glows brightly, we say that it gives off or sends out heat and ________ .
      • light
  • Test
    • The scientist _______ is one of the fathers of Behaviorism.
      • Skinner
    • The educational technology ________ is based on Behaviorism.
      • Programmed Instruction
    • It is based on ______ correct answers and ____ incorrect answers.
      • Rewarding, punishing
    Would you like to learn this way? For what subject matters is this appropriate?
  • Behaviorism: Summary
    • No explicit treatment of/ interest in mental processes
    • Learner merely responds to the "demands" of the environment
    • Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute
  • Learning Theory: Cognitivism
    • What happens in your head?
    • Mental processes are primary object of study
    • Goal: discover and model the mental processes
    • Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
    • Teaching should respect the mental processes
  • Learning Theories: Constructivism
    • Behaviorism/Cognitivism
      • get something in the head of the learners
    • Constructivists
      • create opportunities to discover!
      • knowledge: result of individual learning; cannot be transmitted, must be (re)constructed
      • exploration/discovery/group-learning
    • Learner is in control / Teacher is moderator
    • Learning in context and collaboration
    • Solve realistic and meaningful problems
  • Learning Theories: Summary
    • Behaviorism
      • How do you react?
    • Cognitivism
      • What happens in your head?
    • Constructivism
      • Create opportunities to learn & discover!
  • Behaviorism and language learning
    • Audio-lingual method and audiovisual method
    • focuses on spoken language for everyday communication
    • content: everyday dialogues
    • level: simple
    • exercises: pattern drill
  • Behaviorism and language learning
    • Sample Dialoges:
    • 谢谢你!
    • 不用谢!
    • Vielen Dank!
    • Keine Ursache!
  • Behaviorism and language learning
    • Advantages:
    • Enables speaking without learning complicated grammar
    • Disadvantages:
    • Pattern drills are boring
    • Restricted language use
  • Constructivism and language learning
    • focus: Everything that interests the learners, e.g., own projects
    • content: Everything that interests the learners
    • level: broad level, determined by the topics and the level of the learners
  • Constructivism and language learning
    • Advantages: Prepares learners for “real” interaction
    • Disadvantages: None
  • Constructivism and language learning
    • How did he learn to play basketball?
    • 不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知之,知之不若行之。
    • 荀子
    • "Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand“
    • Xun Zi
  • Communicative competence
    • Linguistic aspects
    • • Phonology and orthography (pronunciation & spelling)
    • • Grammar (syntax)
    • • Vocabulary (words)
    • • Discourse (comprehending texts)
  • Communicative competence
    • Pragmatic aspects
    • • Functions ( communication purposes )
    • • Variations (different styles/ appropriate social meaning )
    • • Interactional skills ( knowing and using the mostly-unwritten rules for interaction in various communication situations )
    • • Cultural framework ( to understand behavior from the standpoint of the members of a culture)
  • Communicative competence
    • How to acquire communicative competence?
    • o Lots of exposure to language you can understand
    • o A chance to negotiate meaning with speakers of the language
    • o A chance to observe and participate in a variety of real communication situations
    • o A chance to get to know what people who speak the language think and believe
  • Communicative competence
    • How to acquire communicative competence?
    • o Base structured work on events you participate in such as
      • a shared meal, or
      • working with somebody in the field.
    • o Build basic vocabulary using action-based approaches and games.
  • Communicative competence
    • How to acquire communicative competence?
    • o Use your social skills to make relationships.
    • o Spend lots of time doing things with people.
    • o Find creative ways to practice using the language.
    • o Use a lot of communicative activities.
  • Tools for Learning: Twitter
    • Twitter:
    • a constructivist approach to acquire communicative competence
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  • Web 2.0
    • Twitter: example of Web 2.0 application
    • Web 2.0 applications
      • take full advantage of the network nature of the Web
      • encourage participation
      • inherently social and open
    • Example: Amazon
  • Web 1.0 / Web 2.0
  • Web 2.0: Some Examples
  • Photo by vincos
  • Web 2.0 & Learning
    • Web 1.0 Learning:
      • Learning Management Systems
      • Administered learning
      • Teacher/Institution centered
    • Web 2.0 Learning:
      • Student centered
      • Student contribute/communicate
      • Teacher moderates/creates learning opportunities
  • Personal Learning Environment
    • Use Web 2.0 applications to create your own learning environment for language learning
    • In 10 minutes!
    • Done
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  • PLE: Too Much Work?
    • 10 minutes ok
    • But let’s do it in 10 seconds
    • Done
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  • PLE: Additional Support
    • PLE may be confusing for new learners
      • how to master the tools
      • when to use which tool
      • what tools are available
    • That is where the teacher comes in
      • has knowledge of tools and how to use them
    • Artificial Intelligence
      • implement this knowledge in the computer
  • Learning Supported by Artificial Intelligence
    • Traditional books/courses:
      • one size fits all
      • non-adaptive
      • ignores your knowledge & goals
    • Adapt learning materials (course) with respect to
      • individual variables (learning goals, knowledge, emotions, …)
      • context (location, device, …)
  • Artificial Intelligence
    • Extract human expert knowledge
    • Formalize it
    • Apply it
  • AI Supported Learning
    • What does the computer need to know?
    Domain/Content Model User Model Teaching/Pedagogical Model
  • Course Generation: Motivation
    • Eva wants to learn about calculus: “ derivative ”
    • Web-search: Google
  • Motivation: Results of Web-Search
      • too many results
      • all kinds of resources
      • not adapted to individual capabilities and goals
  • Motivation: Course Generation (CG) Repository “ derivation”
  • Motivation: Course Generation Repository “ derivation” Course Generator
  • Resources from Several Repositories Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator
  • Integration of Learning-Supporting Tools Course Generator Repositories “ derivation” Tool Tool Tools
  • CG as a Service Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator Tool Tool Tools
  • Modeling of Pedagogical Knowledge / Adaptivity Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator
    • Discover “derivation”
    • Train Competencies “derivation”
    • Exam Simulation “derivation”
    • Illustrate “derivation”
    • Motivate “derivation”
    Tool Tool Tools
  • Course Generation: Pedagogical Knowledge
  • Course Generation: Framework
    • AI: planning, multi agent systems, expert systems
    • (HTN) planning:
      • Goal directed
      • Hierarchical approach easily understandable
      • Efficient
  • Basics of Hierarchical Task Network Planning
      • How it plans:
        • methods decompose tasks
        • down to primitive tasks performed by operators
  • Basic Knowledge
    • Inserting references to
      • educational resources
      • tools
    • Generating structure
    • Accessing information about
      • educational resources
      • the learner
    • About 70 rules
  • Example / Exercise Selection
    • About 60 methods
    • Take into account
      • competency level
      • educational level
      • fields of interest
      • novelty
      • motivation & anxiety
  • Exercise Selection
    • Selecting an exercise, high motivation
      • (learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m)
      • (>= ?m 4)
      • (learnerProperty hasField ?field)
      • (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el)
      • (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl)
      • (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl)
    • Selecting an exercise, adequate competence level
      • (learnerProperty hasField ?field)
      • (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el)
      • (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl)
      • (equivalent ?cl ?ex_cl)
  • Exercise Selection
    • (:method (trainWithSingleExercise! ?c)
    • ((learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m)
    • (>= ?m 4)
    • (learnerProperty hasField ?field)
    • (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el)
    • (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl)
    • (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl)
    • (assign ?unsortedExercises
    • (call GetResources
    • ((class Exercise)
    • (relation isFor ?c)
    • (property hasLearningContext ?el)
    • (property hasCompetencyLevel ?ex_cl)
    • (property hasField ?field))))
    • (sortByAlreadySeen ?exercises ?unsortedExercises)
    • (assignIterator ?exercise ?exercises))
    • ((insertWithVariantsIfReady! ?exercise ?c)))
  • Formalized CG Knowledge: Scenarios
    • Moderate constructivist scenarios:
      • Discover
      • Rehearse
      • Connect
      • Train Intensively
      • Train Competencies
      • Exam Simulation
    • Based on guidelines of instructional design
      • Guided Tour
    • ≈ 300 methods and operators
  • Scenario “Discover” (discover deriv) (:method (discover ?f) () ((!startSection Discover ?f) (descriptionScenarioSection ?f) (learnFundamentalsDiscover ?f) (reflect ?f) (!endSection))) (:method (learnFundamentalDiscover ?c) () ((!startSection Title (?c)) (introduceWithPrereqSection ?c) (developFundamental ?c) (proveSection ?c) (practiceSection ?c) (showConnectionsSection ?c) (!endSection))) Introduce Develop Prove Practice Connect
  • Scenario “Discover” (:method (introduceWithSection! ?c) () ((!startSection Introduction (?c)) (text Introduction (?c)) (motivate! ?c) (problem ?c) (insertIntroductionExample ?c) (!endSection))) (:method (introduceWithPrereqSection! ?c) () ((introduceWithSection! ?c) (learnPrerequisitesFundamentalsShort ?c))) (introduceWithPrereqSection! deriv) Introduce Develop Prove Practice Connect Motivate Problem Illustrate Prerequisites
  • Scenario Discover (:method (motivate! ?c) ((learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasAnxiety ?c ?an) (?an <= 2) (GetElement ((class Exercise) (class Introduction) (relation isFor ?c) (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasDifficulty very_easy)))) ((insertAuxOnceIfReady! ?element))) Introduce Develop Practice Connect Reflect Motivate Problem Illustrate Prerequisites
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  • Course Generation: Results
    • Average time for course generation (filled cache, no LM, complete expansion):
    1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83
  • Course Generation: Results 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83
  • AI-Supported Learning: Summary
    • Artificial Intelligence
      • to select learning objects
      • to select tools
    • Does not replace teacher but helps him/her
    • Current research question:
      • How to use AI for Web 2.0
  • Summary
    • Learning Theories
    • Learning Theories and Language Learning
    • Tools for Personalized Learning
    • How AI supports your Learning
  • How to Continue
    • Contact us for any question:
      • [email_address]
      • [email_address]
    • Use the personal learning environment we created during the lecture:
      • http:// www.google.com/ig/sharetab?hl = en&source = stb&stid =112236995533256220287916fa6930de17d7449a322608f0e32e3
    • Even better: visit iGoogle and build your personal learning environment
      • http:// www.google.com/ig?hl =en
    • Read and comment the slides:
      • http://www.slideshare.net/ullrich/
    • Create an account on Twitter
      • http://twitter.com
      • our Twitter names: kerstinlaoshi & ullrich