Plaguicidas Dinámica Ambiental

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  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Faded picture background with full-color overlay(Intermediate)Tip: For best results with the picture overlay on this slide, use a picture that is the same dimensions as the slide: 7.5” high and 10” wide. If the picture is not the same height and width, resize or crop to those dimensions before following the instructions below. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. Right-click the slide and then click FormatBackground.In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Picture or texture fill, and then under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.Also in the Format Background dialog box, in the Fill pane, in the Transparency box, enter 50%.Also in the Format Background dialog box, click Picture in the left pane. In the Picture pane, click the button next to Recolor, and then under Light Variations, click Background color 2 Light (first option from the left). On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same picture chosen for the background, and then click Insert. Select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from,enter 8.27” into the Right box to crop the picture to a width of 2.25”. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 point.
  • Plaguicidas Dinámica Ambiental

    1. 1. FUENTE:Clasificación y Toxicología de PLAGUICIDAS.Editorial Universidad Nacional del ComahueElaboró: Ing. Agr. H. Ulises Gentileingenierogentilehu@yahoo.com.arPLAGUICIDASDINÁMICA AMBIENTAL
    2. 2. INTRODUCCIÓN.El proceso de aplicación de plaguicidas se direccionahacia un determinado objetivo. Sin embargo unaproporción variable (elevada por lo general) alcanzadestinos “no blanco” del ambiente donde éstosresultan afectados.El movimiento de los plaguicidas en la naturaleza esmuy complejo e incluye transferencias continuas. Eltransporte de plaguicidas, está comprobado, ocurre agrandes distancias.El caso del DDT es emblemático, apareciendo entejidos adiposos de animales de ambos polosgeográficos.
    3. 3. INTRODUCCIÓN.Desde el punto de vista agrícola, los plaguicidas songeneralmente aplicados en estado líquido con latécnica de pulverizado sobre el cultivo y/o el suelo.En algunos casos se incorporan como polvos en elsuelo o a través de semillas tratadas.La distribución inicial del suelo se produce entre elfollaje de la planta, el suelo y la volatilización hacia laatmósfera.El transporte y destino de los plaguicidas se relacionacon aspectos propios, inherentes a la naturalezaquímica del principio activo y también concaracterísticas del contexto natural donde interactúa.
    4. 4. PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.VOLATILIDAD.La volatilidad representa la tendencia delplaguicida a pasar a la fase gaseosa, desdeotro compartimento ambiental.Todas las sustancias orgánicas son volátiles enalgún grado dependiendo de su presión devapor, de la velocidad de difusión a la superficiede evaporación y de la temperatura ambiente.Las mayores pérdidas por volatilización seproducen en el período inmediatamenteposterior a la aplicación del plaguicida a lasplantas o al suelo.
    5. 5. Sin embargo en ambientes secos podría esperarse que estaspérdidas se produzcan en forma continua. La volatilidad sereduce apreciablemente una vez que el plaguicida esincorporado al suelo donde la velocidad de volatilización estácondicionada por el desplazamiento previo de los plaguicidashacia la superficie a través de la difusión o transporte por el aguadel suelo.Los plaguicidas con presión de vapor alta no seconsideran peligrosos para el agua o el suelodada su mayor tendencia a la volatilización.Inversamente aquellos con presión de vapor bajano son considerados peligrosos para el aire.PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.VOLATILIDAD.
    6. 6. La solubilidad describe la máxima cantidad deplaguicida que será capaz de disolverse en unacantidad conocida de agua.Esta propiedad depende de la temperatura, y paraaquellos plaguicidas ácidos o bases débiles tambiéndel pH. Generalmente se expresa en mg/L.Cuanto mayor es la solubilidad del plaguicida en elagua, mayor es su potencial movilidad en el medioambiente, dado que el compuesto no se mueve porsí mismo sino en relación al tiempo que permaneceasociado a una solución líquida.PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.SOLUBILIDAD EN AGUA.
    7. 7. En general se admite que una solubilidad mayor a30 ppm (mg/L) implica un riesgo potencial deque el plaguicida alcance el agua subterránea.Los plaguicidas organoclorados muy pocosolubles en agua son los plaguicidas menosmóviles, seguidos de los compuestosorganofosforados.Los herbicidas ácidos son los más móviles. Losdemás plaguicidas tienen movilidadesintermedias.PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.SOLUBILIDAD EN AGUA.
    8. 8. PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.SOLUBILIDAD EN AGUA.Plaguicida Familia Química Solubilidad mg/LDDT Organoclorado 0.0055Cipermetrina Piretroide 0.004Clorpirifós Organofosforado 0.4Metil tiofanato Fungicida 3.5Lindano Organoclorado 7Metilazinfos Organofosforado 29Atrazina Herbicida 33Tiabenzadol Fungicida 50Carbaril Carbamato 1202,4-D Herbicida 890Glifosato Herbicida 900.000
    9. 9. PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.SOLUBILIDAD EN AGUA.
    10. 10. PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.PERSISTENCIA.Puede ser definida como la tendencia de undeterminado compuesto a conservar su integridadmolecular, sus características químicas, físicas yfuncionales, en el medio a través del cual estransportado y distribuido una vez introducido en elambiente.Si un plaguicida resiste los procesos de degradaciónquímica (hidrólisis), la fotólisis, la oxidación y latransformación microbiana, será entonces muypersistente, y tendrá un alto potencial paracontaminar alguno de los compartimentosambientales.
    11. 11. La velocidad de degradación se expresa entérminos de vida media, que se define como eltiempo (días, semanas, años) requeridos paraque la concentración inicial del producto sereduzca a la mitad. El tiempo de vida media serelaciona con la reactividad que le es propia encada medio (aire, suelo, agua, plantas,animales) pero también queda determinada porlas condiciones ambientales (pH, temperatura,humedad, exposición al oxígeno del aire y a laluz).PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.PERSISTENCIA.
    12. 12. De acuerdo con los tiempos de vida media asociadas, losplaguicidas pueden clasificarse como:1 - ligeramente persistentes (días a semanas).2 – moderadamente persistentes.3 – muy persistentes.La degradación en la atmósfera suele ser rápida por reaccióncon el oxígeno, radicales libres o catalizadas por la luz solar.En medio acuático la degradación se produce principalmentepor hidrólisis y también degradados por microorganismosdel sedimento.En el suelo la degradación microbiana predomina, essignificativa también la degradación química.En plantas y animales la descomposición esta gobernada porlas reacciones metabólicas de biotransformación.PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.PERSISTENCIA.
    13. 13. PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.PERSISTENCIA.
    14. 14. La adsorción entendida como la interacción del plaguicida(adsorbato) con la superficie del suelo (adsorbente), esconsiderada como el proceso mas importante en laatenuación del movimiento de compuestos químicos através del suelo. Por medio de esta interacción lasmoléculas de plaguicida pueden ser retenidas por lafracción coloidal del suelo constituida fundamentalmentepor materia orgánica y arcillas.La tendencia de un compuesto orgánico a adherirse apartículas del suelo puede medirse a través de uncoeficiente que surge entre la razón de la concentracióndel plaguicida en el suelo y la concentración en el agua.Este coeficiente depende de la temperatura.PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.ADSORCIÓN.
    15. 15. Si el coeficiente es alto, significa una fuerte adsorción alsuelo, inversamente si el coeficiente es bajo, el plaguicidase encuentra en la solución intersticial del suelo.Existen correlaciones significativas entre las cantidades deplaguicida adsorbidas y los contenidos de materiaorgánica y minerales arcillosos del suelo.El principal efecto de la adsorción es la inmovilización, quesi bien disminuye el peligro que estos tóxicos conllevan,al mismo tiempo convierte a los plaguicidas en loscompuestos más recalcitrantes a la degradaciónmicrobiana.Una vez adsorbido el plaguicida, el proceso de desorción esmás largo, y muchas veces una fracción del adsorbatopuede quedar irreversiblemente unido.PROPIEDADES FÍSICO – QUÍMICAS.ADSORCIÓN.
    16. 16. Las características externas condicionan elcomportamiento ambiental de losplaguicidas, y se relacionanfundamentalmente con la naturaleza delsuelo, el clima, las labores agrícolas y latopografía del terreno.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.
    17. 17. La dispersión de cualquier compuesto químico se veinfluenciado por la estructura y la textura del suelo,esto en función del camino y características del aguaque lo transporta.Suelos Arenosos: con textura más gruesa tienenmayor capacidad de infiltración resultando en unamayor movilidad del agua y más probabilidad depercolar hacia las napas.Suelos Arcillosos: los pequeños poros retienen poradsorción las moléculas impidiendo la difusión de lasmismas hacia los principales canales de flujo deagua.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.EL SUELO.
    18. 18. Contenido de Materia Orgánica: afecta desde dosaspectos el destino de los plaguicidas, por un lado esuna fuente de energía para los microorganismos, amayor cantidad de MO mayor bioactividad, y porende mayor degradación de los plaguicidas.Por otro lado las moléculas adsorbidas son retenidas yde ese modo disminuye su disponibilidad de serdegradado o transferido a otro compartimento.En los suelos agrícolas, el laboreo implica una mejordistribución de la MO en los diferentes perfiles delsuelo.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.EL SUELO.
    19. 19. La temperatura, la humedad relativa del aire, el vientoson parámetros que influyen sobre el destino final delos plaguicidas en el ambiente.En zonas lluviosas las precipitaciones transportan losplaguicidas, en tanto que en las zonas más secas esel agua de riego la que realiza este movimiento. Poresto último es que se recomienda el riego poraspersión por sobre el riego por inundación paradisminuir la contaminación del agua subterránea.En suelos secos predomina el efecto de adsorción, ensuelos húmedos el efecto de difusión.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.CLIMATOLOGÍA Y LABORES AGRÍCOLAS.
    20. 20. La existencia de cubierta vegetal disminuye laenergía lumínica sobre la superficie del suelo, ydisminuye la degradación de plaguicidas porfotólisis.Del mismo modo la cubierta vegetal disminuye latemperatura del suelo, reduciendo lavolatilización de los plaguicidas y sudegradación.El uso de fertilizantes disminuye el pH del sueloafectando la degradación y movilidad de losplaguicidas en el mismo.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.CLIMATOLOGÍA Y LABORES AGRÍCOLAS.
    21. 21. La deriva de plaguicidas durante las aplicaciones aéreascontaminan sembrados contiguos, salud humana y alambiente en general.Un 20% de estos plaguicidas se derivan a través del airedurante este tipo de aplicación.Para evitar esto es imprescindible respetar las restriccionesclimáticas para su uso, tamaño de gota y condiciones deoperación.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.CLIMATOLOGÍA Y LABORES AGRÍCOLAS.
    22. 22. Los factores más importantes en la potencialcontaminación de un acuífero en función de suvulnerabilidad son:1. Profundidad de la napa freática.2. Recarga.3. Medio del acuífero.4. Suelo.5. Topografía.6. Impacto de la zona no saturada.7. Conductividad hidráulica del acuífero.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.ACUÍFEROS.
    23. 23. Profundidad de la napa: a mayor profundidad elplaguicida trata más tiempo en alcanzar el acuíferofreático, lo cual facilita su degradación.Recarga: cuanto mayor es la recarga, más plaguicidaes transportado al acuífero, (por lluvia o riego).Medio del acuífero: se refiere al medio material en elcual se asienta el acuífero. En general a mayortamaño de grano y más fracturas en el medio, mayorserá la permeabilidad y la probabilidad decontaminación del agua subterránea.Suelo: a mayor contenido de arcillas y MO, menor serála contaminación del agua subterránea.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.ACUÍFEROS.
    24. 24. Topografía: se refiere a la pendiente del terreno, elagua dispersa a los plaguicidas por escurrimiento olixiviación. Lo primero contribuye a la polución de lasaguas superficiales, en tanto que lo segundo afecta alas aguas subterráneas.Impacto de la zona no saturada: esta zona es laubicada entre la napa subterránea y el nivel del suelopropiamente dicho. Allí se producen efectosdegradadores de los plaguicidas (adsorción,dispersión, etc.).Conductividad hidráulica del acuífero: a mayorconductividad, mayor vulnerabilidad.CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL MEDIO.ACUÍFEROS.
    25. 25. En función de las propiedades físico-químicas descriptas y lascaracterísticas del medio observadas, los plaguicidasexponen una movilidad intra e interfase cuyaesquematización vemos en la figura adjunta.TRANSFERENCIA ENTRE COMPARTIMENTOS.
    26. 26. ElTRANSFERENCIA ENTRE COMPARTIMENTOS.ATMÓSFERA.Los plaguicidas puede volatilizarse desde el suelo, elagua o la superficie de las plantas a través de uncambio de fase. Se ha demostrado que desde lasplantas la volatilización es hasta tres veces mayorque desde el suelo. En la superficie de las hojas latemperatura es mayor a la del aire en los díassoleados, disminuyendo la volatilidad a medida queel plaguicida se incorpora a las ceras foliaressuperficiales.Por otro lado la tendencia a pasar desde el agua a laatmósfera dependerá de la solubilidad del plaguiciday su relación con su presión de vapor. (ley de Henry).
    27. 27. Una vez aplicado el plaguicida su disponibilidad demovimiento depende del modo en que fueaplicado, su solubilidad, persistencia y asimilaciónpor las plantas.Si el agua de riego o lluvia se mueve superficialmente overticalmente, transportará los plaguicidas haciazonas más o menos profundas.Si el plaguicida es persistente probablemente llegue aaguas superficiales o subterráneas respectivamente.Los terrenos llanos favorecen la infiltración, en losterrenos con pendiente predomina el escurrimiento.TRANSFERENCIA ENTRE COMPARTIMENTOS.INFILTRACIÓN VS. ESCURRIMIENTO.
    28. 28. Las aguas superficiales son un componenteimportante del ambiente natural y seencuentran sujetas a un continuo riesgo decontaminación. De todas las fuentes de aguadulce, son consideradas las más vulnerablesdebido a su interacción con la atmósfera, elsuelo, el agua subterránea y los océanos através de los estuarios.Dado que son hábitat de muchas especiesacuáticas el efecto nocivo de loscontaminantes se extiende inexorablemente a labiota.TRANSFERENCIA ENTRE COMPARTIMENTOS.AGUAS SUPERFICIALES.
    29. 29. Las aguas superficiales en áreas agrícolas están expuestasa la contaminación después de la aplicación a campo.Las rutas más importantes de entrada de los plaguicidasal agua superficial son:1. Deriva de pulverización.2. Escurrimiento a campo.3. Erosión del suelo.Estos escenarios de exposición difieren mucho en losresultados.La erosión del suelo y el escurrimiento son considerados losprincipales fenómenos por los cuales los plaguicidasentran a corrientes de agua, lagos, lagunas, etc.TRANSFERENCIA ENTRE COMPARTIMENTOS.AGUAS SUPERFICIALES.
    30. 30. TRANSFERENCIA ENTRE COMPARTIMENTOS.SISTEMA SUELO – AGUA SUBTERRÁNEA.Al igual que la lluvia, el riego incrementa el grado delixiviación y un exceso de riego, especialmente si espor inundación, puede llegar a inyectar directamentelos contaminantes en el acuífero. El aguanormalmente se mueve a través de los microporosen la matriz del suelo. Este flujo es lento y elequilibrio de adsorción con las partículas del sueloretardan su movimiento descendente. Si el agua semueve a través de macroporos (canales de antiguasraíces, galerías de insectos), se produce un flujorápido percolando el plaguicida hasta las aguassubterráneas.
    31. 31. Muchos plaguicidas lipofílicos tienden a acumularse endiferentes organismos, incluso en los humanos. Lostérminos utilizados para definir este fenómeno son:bioconcentración, bioacumulación ybiomagnificación.Bioconcentración: cuando alcanzan concentracionesmayores en un organismo que en el medio al queestán expuestos.Bioacumulación: la concentración aumenta en funcióndel tiempo, dado que su grado de absorción superala capacidad de eliminarlos.Biomagnificación: esto sucede cuando laconcentración aumenta en cada eslabón de lacadena trófica.CADENA ALIMENTARIA.
    32. 32. http://www.rionegro.com.ar/diario/preocupan-las-altas-dosis-de-plaguicidas-en-la-leche-materna-1072338-9529-nota.aspxPreocupan las altas dosis deplaguicidas en la leche materna16/02/2013 Los técnicos de INTIadvirtieron que los valores exceden en un15% a los del Código AlimentarioArgentino. Las futuras madres incorporanestos residuos de pesticidas por la ingestade agua, frutas y verduras.
    33. 33. Elaboró: Ing. Agr. H. Ulises Gentileingenierogentilehu@yahoo.com.ar

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