Pragmatics intro to linguistic


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Pragmatics intro to linguistic

  1. 1. Pragmatics By The Sixth Group: Agil Abdur Rohim Ainun Chamidah Ainun Munfadhila Diah Wahyuni Nikmayukhah Siti Nur Fidiawati Ulil Fauziyah (D75212075) (D05212003) (D35212047) (D95212082) (D05212023) (D55212060) (D05212045)
  2. 2. Introduction of pragmatics Pragmatics as a field of linguistic inquiry was initiated in the 1930s by Morris, Carnap, and Peirce, for whom syntax addressed the formal relations of signs to one another, semantics the relation of signs to what they denote, and pragmatics the relation of signs to their users and interpreters (Morris 1938). In this program, pragmatics is the study of those context-dependent aspects of meaning which are systematically abstracted away from in the construction of content or logical form.
  3. 3. What is Pragmatics? Pragmatics is the study of the ways people use language in actual conversation. Pragmatics is the study of meaning of words, phrases and full sentences, but unlike semantics which deals with the objective meanings of words that can be found in dictionaries, pragmatics is more concerned with the meanings that words in fact convey when they are used, or with intended speaker meaning as it is sometimes referred to.
  4. 4. Definition Longman: Technical the study of how words and phrases are used with special meanings in particular situations. Oxford: The branch of linguistics dealing with language in use and the contexts in which it is used, including such matters as Deixis, the taking of turns in conversation, text organization, presupposition, and implicative.
  5. 5. DEIXIS Definition Deixis is “pointing language”. We use deictic expressions or indexical to signal a referent and relate that referent to common ground shared by the speaker and the addressee. They situate the speaker and the addressee in relation to each other and the world around them. In other words, deixis helps us to identify things in time and space
  6. 6. Person deixis • a) Terms referring to speaker and addressee: I, me, my, mine, you, your ,yours • • • Is there a difference between these: - I want to see you, - you can never tell if they are boys • b) Terms not referring to speaker or addressee • he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs • c) Honorifics - Your Majesty, sir, • These terms of social deixis indicate social status
  7. 7. Time Deixis Expressions referring to time: five minutes ago tomorrow last week next Monday Choice of tense: - present tense - he doesn’t know this is proximal - past tense yesterday I slept for 10 hours this communicates distance from current time - conditionals reality if I won the lottery I would … this communicates distance from current
  8. 8. Spatial deixis Spatial deixis refers to proximity to or distance from the speaker. These can be single words … here there this that … or expressions two kilometres from the school 500 meters away … and words/expressions referring to direction and/or movement to my left under the carpet fetch, take, bring she came home she went home
  9. 9. Interpretation of deictic terms We interpret deictic terms by looking at aspects of context such as - who is speaking - the time of speaking - the location of the speaker speaker - gestures or body language of the - the topic of the discourse
  10. 10. REFERENCE An act by which a speaker (or writer) uses language to enable a listener (or reader) to identify something.
  11. 11. Inference REFERENCE Anaphora Presupposition
  12. 12. Inference additional information used by the listener to create a connection between what is said and what must be meant Example A :“where’s the spinach salad sitting?” B :“He’s sitting by the door”
  13. 13. Anaphora subsequent reference to an already introduced entity OR The use of a linguistic unit, such as a pronoun, to refer back to another unit
  14. 14. Example We found a house to rent, but the kitchen was very small. 1st = antecedent 2nd= anaphor
  15. 15. Presupposition What a speaker (or writer) assumes is true or known by a listener (or reader)
  16. 16. example My car is a wreck (there’s presupposition that the speaker has a car) Your brother is waiting outside (there’s an presupposition that you have a brother) Why did you arrive late? (there’s presupposition that you did arrive late) a
  17. 17. Idiom model of Pragmatic Idiom is group of words with a meaning that is different from the meaning of all the individual words. Each individual has different meaning of words.
  18. 18. Examples A : “Crack the window” B : “Yes, I do” A : “Its raining cats and dogs” B : “I think so”
  19. 19. POLITENESS In the study of linguistic politeness, the most relevant concept is “face.” Your face, in pragmatics, is your public self-image. This is the emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize. Politeness can be defined as showing awareness and consideration of another person’s face. If you say something that represents a threat to another person’s self-image, that is called a facethreatening act.
  20. 20. Example •If you use a direct speech act to get do something Give me that paper! someone to •An indirect speech act, in the form associated with a question (Could you pass me that paper?), removes the assumption of social power
  21. 21. ExamplE…….. • A: Hello. •B: Hi Rodney. Can you guess who this is? •‘Wow, you look awful today! Is there anything wrong? •To you best friend? •To your boss?
  22. 22. Speech Acts Theory Founded By: J.L Austin 1930’s John R. Searle 1950’s
  23. 23. J.L Austin • Oxford philosopher J.L. Austin is foremost attributed to developing this theory. • Austin formulated his ideas on speech act theory in the 1930’s and lectured on them at both Oxford and Harvard.
  24. 24. John R. Searle • After Austin’s death one of his former students, John R. Searle, took many of Austin’s ideas and concepts on speech act theory and further elaborated and refined them in 1950’s
  25. 25. Theory • • • • 1. Performative 2. Constantive 3. Explicit Performative 4. Implicit Performative Felicity Condition • • • • 1.Prepositional Content 2.Preparatory Condition 3.Sincerity Condition 4.Essential Condition Indirect Speech • Definition
  26. 26. Speech Act Theory • Basic concept of Speech Act Theory is “Saying is part of doing” or “Words are connected to actions” • A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication (Wikipedia
  27. 27. Speech Act Theory 1. Performative Utterances that are used to do things or perform acts. Ex: “Kholik promises Unya to treat her in KFC.” 2. Constatives Utterances that can be verified as true or false. Ex: “Rizky is beautiful and stylish.”
  28. 28. Speech Act Theory 3. Explicit Performative Sentence that contains a performative verb that makes explicit what kind of act is being performed. Ex: The court hereby forbids you to enter your former wife’s house. 4. Implicit Performative Sentence that does not contain explicit meaning. Ex: “Do it yourself!”.
  29. 29. Felicity Condition of Speech Acts 1. Propositional Content: Concerned with what the speech act is about (the “core” of utterances) • Ex: “I do want to pay that, unfortunately, I don’t have money”. • Meaning: I don’t pay that. • Ex: “I love you too, but I already have a boyfriend. • Meaning: She rejects the boy’s love
  30. 30. Felicity Condition of Speech Acts 2. Preparatory Condition: Real-world prerequisites for the speech acts. 3. Sincerity Condition: Must be satisfied if the act is performed sincerely ( if it isn’t satisfied, the act is still performed, but there is an abuse) • Ex: Teacher: Submit your 3 day lesson plan now! Ainun : But, we haven’t finish it mom  Teacher: No reason! Ainun : *submit it with crying*
  31. 31. Felicity Condition of Speech Acts 4. Essential Condition: Speaker's intention that his utterance will count as the identifiable act and that this intention is recognized by the addresse. • Ex: Act: Agil : Ulil’s husband Ulil : Agil’s wife Ni’mayucha : Agil and Ulil’s baby. • Ni’mayucha: *cry out loud* Agil : Dear, you know what to do  Ulil : Okay honey *throws the baby out*
  32. 32. Indirect Speech Acts • Indirect speech is a written text of about what was said by someone. • Ex: “Dila, would you please throw the durian to Dyah?”, said Vidia. <- Example of interrogative indirect speech.
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