Organic Chemistry: Classification of Organic Compounds
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Organic Chemistry: Classification of Organic Compounds

on

  • 25,676 views

Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
25,676
Views on SlideShare
24,295
Embed Views
1,381

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
273
Comments
1

6 Embeds 1,381

http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk 1356
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 16
https://twitter.com 4
http://study.myllps.com 3
http://www.slideshare.net 1
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • fahim
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Organic Chemistry: Classification of Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry: Classification of Organic Compounds Presentation Transcript

  • This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Organic Chemistry II University of Lincoln presentation
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Contain double or triple bonds, but do not show the same reactivity as other unsaturated hydrocarbons
    • Benzene: C 6 H 6
    • Used mainly as solvents
    • Substitution rather than
    • Addition is favoured
  • Resonance Structure: Rearrange the bonding electrons This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Delocalisation, Resonance: Stabilise molecules, so make them less reactive Three sp2 hybrid orbitals arrange themselves as far apart as possible -which is at 120° on a plane. The remaining p orbital is at right angles to them. Each carbon atom uses the sp2 hybrids to form σ-bonds with two other carbons and one hydrogen atom. Delocalised or Conjugated System: π-bonding electrons can move within the molecule 6 p-orbitals Delocalised orbital clouds
  • Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Flurobenzene Toluene Ethylbenzene 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Aniline 1,2-Dichlorobenzene Phenol 1,3-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene o -Xylene m -Bromostyrene Benzoic acid -ortho -para -meta
  • Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Substitution
    • Aromatic Substitution reaction – Aromatic compound loses a hydrogen atom and another atom or group takes its place.
    • It is possible for substitution to occur in more than one place on the ring.
    otha -Dinitrobenzene para -Dinitrobenzene meta -Dinitrobenzene
  • Alcohols This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • – OH group (hydroxyl group)
    • Replace - e with - ol
    • CH 3 OH, methanol, simplest
      • alcohols are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°), or tertiary (3°) depending on the number of carbon atoms bonded to the carbon bearing the -OH group
    Primary Alcohol (1 o ) Secondary Alcohol (2 o ) Tertiary Alcohol (3 o )
  • Naming Alcohols This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Polyhydroxy alcohols are alcohols that possess more than one hydroxyl group methanol ethanol propanol 2-propanol or propan-2-ol or isopropyl alcohol 2-ethyl-1-butanol or 2-ethyl-butan-1-ol 1,2-Ethanediol (ethylene glycol) 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol) 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol)
  • Reactions of Alcohols This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ■ Reaction with acids to produce Esters ■ Redox reaction (Reduction and oxidation) Ethanol Acetic Acid (ethanoic acid) Ethyl acetate Acetaldehyde Alcohol Dehydrogenase Acetic Acid
  • Ethers This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • – O- group (ether group)
    • CH 3 OCH 3 , dimethyl ether simplest
    • Soluble in water- H-bonding to water - Polar
    • Flammable – Ether can cause flash fires
    • Low Reactivity – Make Good Reaction Solvents
    • Naming: alkyl groups in alphabetical order followed by ether
  • Aldehydes and Ketones Naming Aldehydes Change -e ending to –al ethane ethanal (acetaldehyde) Ketones Change -e ending to –one propane propanone (acetone) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Both contain a carbonyl group (C=O)
    • Aldehyde Ketone
  • Reactions of Aldehydes and ketones This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Synthesis: produced by oxidation of alcohol Reduction of carbonyl group to produce alcohols Primary Alcohol Oxidation Reduction Secondary Alcohol Oxidation Reduction Tertiary Alcohol Cannot be oxidised
  • Oxidation of carbonyl group This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Oxidation Strong Oxidation Reduction Reduction Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxilic acids This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Contains C=O and –OH group on same carbon
    • Change - e to - oic acid
    • Acetic acid: acid in vinegar
    • Simplest: methanoic acid
    • (formic acid)
    Methanoic acid Ethanoic acid Propanoic acid
  • Reactions of Carboxilic acids This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ■ Esterification reactions ■ Reduction to aldehydes Acetic Acid (ethanoic acid) Ethyl acetate
  • Ester This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Derived from carboxylic acids and alcohols
    • Tend to be fragrant
      • Methyl butyrate apple
      • Ethyl butyrate pineapple
    • An ester name has two parts - the part that comes from the acid (propanoate) and the part that shows the alkyl group (methyl).
    • Example: Methyl propanoate
  • Reactions of Esters This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Substitution Reduction of esters Hydrolisis of esters (basic) Carboxylate ester Sodium hydroxide Sodium Carboxylate Alcohol Ester Acid Amide R 2 OH R + H 2 O R 2 NH base
  • Amines This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Derived from ammonia by substituting H for alkyl groups. It is an alkali
    • We have primary, secondary or tertiary amines depending on the number of H substituted
    Ammonia Primary amine (1 o ) Secondary amine (2 o ) Tertiary amine (3 o )
  • Amines This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 1,4-butanediamine Putrescine (found in decaying meat) (1 o ) Amphetamine (dangerous stimulant) (1 o ) Piperidine Triethylamine (3 o ) Isopropylamine (1 o ) 1,5-pentanediamine Cadaverine (found in the putrefaction of cadavers
  • Reactions of Amines This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Alkylation Oxidation reduction Phenylamine
  • Acknowledgements
    • JISC
    • HEA
    • Centre for Educational Research and Development
    • School of natural and applied sciences
    • School of Journalism
    • SirenFM
    • http:// tango.freedesktop.org
    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License