Chemical Structure: Chemical Nomenclature. Inorganic Compounds

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Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

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Chemical Structure: Chemical Nomenclature. Inorganic Compounds

  1. 1. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Inorganic Compounds- nomenclature University of Lincoln presentation
  2. 2. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS <ul><li>Compounds composed of elements other than carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with the nonliving portion of the world </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  3. 3. NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS <ul><li>Ionic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Acids </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  4. 4. NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS <ul><li>CATIONS ( POSITIVE IONS) </li></ul><ul><li>A. Cations formed from metal atoms have the same name as the metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Na + sodium ion Zn 2+ zinc ion </li></ul><ul><li>Al 3+ aluminum ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  5. 5. <ul><li>B. If a metal can form cations of different charges, the positive charge is given by a Roman numeral in parenthesis following the name of the metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 2+ iron (II) ion Cu + copper (I) ion </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 3+ iron (III) ion Cu 2+ copper (II) ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ions with different charges exhibit different properties, such as color. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the metals that have variable charges are transition metals. </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  7. 7. <ul><li>Apply –ous or –ic </li></ul><ul><li>The endings represent the lower and higher charged ions, respectively. </li></ul><ul><li> Fe 2+ ferrous ion Cu + cuprous ion </li></ul><ul><li> Fe 3+ ferric ion Cu 2+ cupric ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  8. 8. IONIC CHARGES OF REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 0 Li + Be 2+ N 3- O 2- F - Na + Mg 2+ Al +3 P 3- S 2- Cl - K + Ca 2+ As 3- Se 2- Br - Rb + Sr 2+ I - Cs + Ba 2+
  9. 9. FORMULAS AND NAMES OF COMMON METAL IONS WITH MORE THAN ONE IONIC CHARGE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License FORMULA STOCK NAME CLASSICAL NAME Cu + Copper (I) ion Cuprous ion Cu 2+ Copper (II) ion Cupric ion Fe 2+ Iron (II) ion Ferrous ion Fe 3+ Iron (III) ion Ferric ion Hg 2+ Mercury (I) ion Mercurous ion Hg 2 + Mercury (II) ion Mercuric ion Pb 2+ Lead (II) ion Plumbous ion Pb 4+ Lead (IV) ion Plumbic ion Sn 2+ Tin (II) ion Stannous ion Sn 4+ Tin (IV) ion Stannic ion Cr 2+ Chromium (II) ion Chromous ion Cr 3+ Chromium (III) ion Chromic ion Mn 2+ Manganese (II) ion Manganous ion Mn 3+ Manganese (III) ion Manganic ion Co 2+ Co 3+ Cobalt (II) ion Cobalt (III) ion Cobaltous ion Cobaltic ion
  10. 10. <ul><li>C. Cations formed from nonmetals have names that end in –ium </li></ul><ul><li>NH 4 + ammonium ion </li></ul><ul><li>H 3 O + hydronium ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  11. 11. EXERCISES: <ul><li>Name each of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sn 2+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sn 4+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba 2+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co 2+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co 3+ </li></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Sn 2+ Tin (II) ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sn 4+ Tin (IV) ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K + Potassium ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba 2+ Barium ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co 2+ Cobalt (II) ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co 3+ Cobalt (III) ion </li></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  13. 13. <ul><li>2. ANIONS (NEGATIVE IONS) </li></ul><ul><li>A. Monoatomic (one-atom) anions have names formed by replacing the ending of the name of the element with –ide </li></ul><ul><li>H - O 2- N 3- OH - </li></ul><ul><li>Hydride ion Oxide ion Nitride ion Hydroxide ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  14. 14. <ul><li>B. Polyatomic (many-atoms) anions containing oxygen have names ending in –ate or –ite </li></ul><ul><li>These are called oxyanions </li></ul><ul><li>-ate is used for the most common oxyanion of an element </li></ul><ul><li>-ite is used for an oxyanion that has the same charge but one less O atoms </li></ul><ul><li>NO 3 - nitrate ion SO 4 2- sulfate ion </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 - nitrite ion SO 3 2- sulfite ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  15. 15. <ul><li>Prefixes are used when the series of oxyanions of an element extends to four members, as with halogens </li></ul><ul><li>The prefix per- indicates one or more O atom than the oxyanion ending in –ate </li></ul><ul><li>The prefix hypo- indicates one less O atom than the oxyanion ending in –ite </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  16. 16. <ul><li>ClO 4 - perchlorate ion (one more O atom than chlorate) </li></ul><ul><li>ClO 3 - chlorate ion </li></ul><ul><li>ClO 2 - chlorite ion (one less O atom than chlorate) </li></ul><ul><li>ClO - hypochlorite ion (one less O atom than chlorite) </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  17. 17. <ul><li>C. Anions derived by adding H+ to an oxyanion are named by adding as a prefix the word hydrogen or dihydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>CO 3 2- carbonate ion </li></ul><ul><li>HCO 3 - hydrogen carbonate ion </li></ul><ul><li>PO 4 3- phosphate ion </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 PO 4 - dihydrogen phosphate ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  18. 18. COMMON POLYATOMIC IONS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License 3- charge PO 3 3- Phosphite PO 4 3- Phosphate 1+ charge NH 4 + Ammonium Perchlorate ClO 4 - Chlorate ClO 3 - Chlorite ClO 2 - Hypochlorite ClO- Permanganate MnO 4 - Hydroxide OH- Cyanide CN- Nitrate NO 3 - Nitrite NO 2 - Hydrogen carbonate HCO 3 - Hydrogen sulfate HSO 4 - Hydrogen sulfite HSO 3 - Acetate C 2 H 3 O 2 - Dihydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4 - 1- charge Silicate SiO 3 2- Dichromate Cr 2 O 7 2- Chromate CrO 4 2- Carbonate CO 3 2- Sulfate SO 4 2- Sulfite SO 3 2- Oxalate C 2 O 4 2- Hydrogen phosphate HPO 4 2- 2- charge
  19. 19. <ul><li>3. IONIC COMPOUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>Names of ionic compounds consist of the cation name followed by the anion name </li></ul><ul><li>CaCl 2 calcium chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Al(NO 3 ) 3 aluminum nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>Cu(ClO 4 ) 2 copper (II)perchlorate </li></ul><ul><li>cupric perchlorate </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  20. 20. EXERCISES: <ul><li>What is the charge of the ion typically formed by each element? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead, 4 electrons lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strontium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper, 1 electron lost </li></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Sulfur 2- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead, 4 electrons lost 4+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strontium 2+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argon no ion formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine 1- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper, 1 electron lost 1+ </li></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  22. 22. <ul><li>Name the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>CuS </li></ul><ul><li>K 3 N </li></ul><ul><li>SnCl 2 </li></ul><ul><li>K 2 S </li></ul><ul><li>CaI 2 </li></ul><ul><li>NaI </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  23. 23. <ul><li>CuS Copper (II) sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>K 3 N Potassium Nitride </li></ul><ul><li>SnCl 2 Tin (II) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>K 2 S Potassium sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>CaI 2 Calcium Iodide </li></ul><ul><li>NaI Sodium Iodide </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  24. 24. <ul><li>Name the following: </li></ul><ul><li>MgCl 2 </li></ul><ul><li>SnCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>HgBr 2 </li></ul><ul><li>PbS 2 </li></ul><ul><li>FeO </li></ul><ul><li>Write the formula for each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium bromide </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Ferrous bromide </li></ul><ul><li>Lead (II) sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Stannic oxide </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  25. 25. HOMEWORK: <ul><li>Name the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoI 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cs 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZnS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BaO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CuBr 2 </li></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>CoI 2 Cobalt Iodide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cs 2 O Cesium Oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZnS Zinc sulfide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KCI Potassium chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BaO Barium Oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CuBr 2 Copper bromide </li></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  27. 27. <ul><li>NAMES OF FORMULAS OF ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>An acid is a substance whose molecules yield hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water. </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  28. 28. <ul><li>Acid based on anions whose names end in –ide. Anions whose names end in –ide have he asociated acids that have the hydro- prefix and an –ic ending </li></ul><ul><li>ANION CORRESPONDING ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Cl - (chloride) HCl (hydrochloric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>S 2- (sulfide) H 2 S (hydrosulfuric acid) </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  29. 29. <ul><li>2. Anions whose names end in –ate have associated acids with an –ic ending, whereas anions whose names end in –ite have acids with an -ous ending. Prefixes in the name of the anion are retained in the name of the acid. </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  30. 30. <ul><li>ANION CORRESPONDING ACID </li></ul><ul><li>ClO 4 - perchlorate H ClO 4 – perchloric acid </li></ul><ul><li>ClO 3 - chlorate HClO 3 – chloric acid </li></ul><ul><li>ClO 2 - chlorite H ClO 2 – chlorous acid </li></ul><ul><li>ClO - hypochlorite H ClO – hypochloric acid </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  31. 31. EXERCISES: <ul><li>Give the name or formula for the following: </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 CO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphoric acid </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  32. 32. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Acknowledgements <ul><li>JISC </li></ul><ul><li>HEA </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Research and Development </li></ul><ul><li>School of natural and applied sciences </li></ul><ul><li>School of Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>SirenFM </li></ul><ul><li>http:// tango.freedesktop.org </li></ul>

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