• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds
 

Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds

on

  • 4,722 views

Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,722
Views on SlideShare
4,550
Embed Views
172

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
80
Comments
1

2 Embeds 172

http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk 170
https://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • should have explained the difference btw. each type of bond esp. coordinate and metallic,, except for this the slides were cooolll !!!!
    keep it up
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Presentation Transcript

    • This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Chemical Bonding 4 IONIC, METALLIC & COORDINATE BONDS University of Lincoln presentation
    • Ionic Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • IONIC BONDING
      • Very important form of bonding – main bonding mechanism of metals:
          • >80 elements are METALS
          • 19 elements are non-metals
          • 5 elements are metalloids
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Ionic Bonding – main bonding mechanism of the metals This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Ionic f - block elements H Be Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Zr Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Pb Bi Po At Rn Xe Kr Ar Ne Sb Te I Ga Al Ge Si P S Cl As Se Br Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr He B C N O F Lanthanoids Actinoids d – block elements Hydrogen and s – block elements p – block elements
    • Forming Ionic Bonds
      • IONIC BONDS are electrostatic in nature, and are formed by transferring electrons from an electron giver to an electron taker
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ELECTRON GIVER ELECTRON TAKER e – Cation (+) Anion (-)
    • Electron Givers
      • Most metals have 1–3 valence electrons that they would like to lose
      • Metals are therefore ELECTRON GIVERS
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Electron Takers
      • Elements on the RHS of the periodic table (non-metals) would like to gain electrons
      • Non-metals are therefore good
      • ELECTRON TAKERS
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • For Example…
      • Cu(I) Cu – e –  Cu +
      • Cu(II) Cu – 2e –  Cu 2+
      • O + 2e –  O 2–
      • Overall reactions:
      • Cu(I) 4Cu + O 2  2Cu 2 O
      • Cu(II) 2Cu + O 2  2CuO
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Some Common Ions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Silicate SiO 4 4– Hydroxide OH – Sulphate SO 4 2– Carbonate CO 3 2– Sulphide S 2– Peroxide O 2 2– Oxide O 2– Chloride Cl – Name Symbol ANIONS Tin(II) Sn 2+ Iron(III) Fe 3+ Iron(II) Fe 2+ Copper(II) Cu 2+ Copper(I) Cu + Calcium Ca 2+ Potassium K + Sodium Na + Name Symbol CATIONS
    • Structural types
      • Common geometries adopted:
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Octahedral geometry Tetrahedral geometry
      • There are only a few structural shapes adopted in solid ionic compounds (salts):
          • Rock Salt (sodium chloride)
          • Caesium chloride
          • Fluorite (calcium fluoride)
          • Rutile (titanium(IV) oxide)
      Structural shapes This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Rock Salt Structure This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License S 2– Pb 2+ PbS Lead(II) sulfide S 2– Mg 2+ MgS Magnesium sulfide O 2– Fe 2+ FeO Iron(II) oxide O 2– Ba 2+ BaO Barium oxide O 2– Ca 2+ CaO Calcium oxide O 2– Mg 2+ MgO Magnesium oxide Cl – Ag + AgCl Silver chloride F – Ag + AgF Silver fluoride I – K + KI Potassium iodide Br – K + KBr Potassium bromide Cl – Li + LiCl Lithium chloride H – Na + NaH Sodium hydride F – Na + NaF Sodium fluoride Cl – Na + NaCl Sodium chloride Anion Cation Formula Compound
    • Rock Salt Type – cubic This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 6 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 6 NaCl: 801 C S=35.9g/100ml (25C)
      • The COORDINATION NUMBER of an ion is the number of nearest neighbours
      Definition… This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Caesium Chloride Type – BCC This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License BCC = Body centred cubic Cesium chloride unit cell (space filling diagram) Cesium chloride unit cell (ball and stick diagram)
    • Caesium Chloride Type – BCC This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 8 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 8 CsCl: 645 C S=162g/100ml (1 C) A unit cell of caesium chloride Extending the caesium chloride structure
    • Fluorite Type This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 8 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 4 CaF 2 : 1402 C S=virtually insoluble CaF 2 unit cell
    • Rutile Type This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 6 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 3 TiO 2 : 1870 C S=Insoluble Unit cell of rutile type TiO 2
    • Metallic Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Solid State Metals
      • METALLIC BONDING is a variation on both covalent and ionic bonding:
          • The bonding is electrostatic in nature (like ionic)
          • but involves the sharing of electrons (like covalent) over many atoms of the same type
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • The Metallic Bond This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Metal ion Electron The structure of a metal consists of a lattice of bonded metal cations with a ‘ sea of electrons ’. The electrons are not bound, and can move throughout the structure – hence metals are good conductors of electricity
    • Coordinate Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Transition Metals This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License The TRANSITION METALS (d- and f-block metals) usually form COORDINATE BONDS f - block elements H Be Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Zr Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Pb Bi Po At Rn Xe Kr Ar Ne Sb Te I Ga Al Ge Si P S Cl As Se Br Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr He B C N O F Lanthanoids Actinoids d – block elements Hydrogen and s – block elements p – block elements
    • The Coordinate Bond
      • The COORDINATE BOND occurs when a species donates its lone pair of electrons to a metal ion
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cl Lone pair The metal does NOT use its own valence electrons for bonding Fe 2+
    • Definition…
      • A species that donates a lone pair of electrons to a metal ion to form a coordinate bond is called a LIGAND
      • A ligand can be either anionic or neutral
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • Definitions…
      • Covalent bond
      • Ionic bond
      • Metallic bond
      • Coordinate bond
      • Coordination number
      • Ligand
      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
    • This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Acknowledgements
      • JISC
      • HEA
      • Centre for Educational Research and Development
      • School of natural and applied sciences
      • School of Journalism
      • SirenFM
      • http:// tango.freedesktop.org