Quantum Theory:  Orbital Shapes  and Energy Levels  Lecture 21
An  s  orbital has a spherical shape, so it can have only one orientation and, thus, only one value for the magnetic quant...
s -Orbitals.
1s  orbital has one region of higher electron density.
2s  orbital has two regions of higher electron density.
A  p  orbital has a dumbbell shape, so it does have a specific orientation in space and, thus, three values for the magnet...
There are  p z ,  p x ,  p y   orbitals.
All  p  orbitals full.
All  p  orbitals are identical in size, shape, energy. Differ in orientation only.
Both in case of  p  orbitals and in case of  d ,  f  orbitals there is no necessary relation between a spatial axis and a ...
Four  d  orbitals have a roadjunction shape, one  d  orbital has a dumbbell-with-a-donut shape.
d -Orbitals have specific orientation in space and, thus, five values for the magnetic quantum number ( m l   = -2, -1, 0,...
There are d yz -, d xz -, d xy -, d x 2 -y 2  and d z 2  orbitals.
Seven  f  orbitals have a complex multilobed  shape. They have specific orientation in space and, thus, seven values for t...
Memorize and remember:
S -,  p -,  d - and  f -orbitals are the most common. Although, theoretically,  g -,  h -,  i - asf. orbitals exist, too. ...
The 1 st  level: 1 type of orbitals.
The 2 nd  level: 2 types of orbitals.
The 3 rd  level: 3 types of orbitals.
The energy state  of the hydrogen atom depends on the principal quantum number  n  only.
The energy levels in the H atom.
The energy state  of an atom of any other element depends on both the principal quantum number  n  and the angular momentu...
The energy levels in many-electron atoms.
THE END
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Lecture21221

  1. 1. Quantum Theory: Orbital Shapes and Energy Levels Lecture 21
  2. 2. An s orbital has a spherical shape, so it can have only one orientation and, thus, only one value for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = 0).
  3. 3. s -Orbitals.
  4. 4. 1s orbital has one region of higher electron density.
  5. 5. 2s orbital has two regions of higher electron density.
  6. 6. A p orbital has a dumbbell shape, so it does have a specific orientation in space and, thus, three values for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = -1, 0, and +1).
  7. 7. There are p z , p x , p y orbitals.
  8. 8. All p orbitals full.
  9. 9. All p orbitals are identical in size, shape, energy. Differ in orientation only.
  10. 10. Both in case of p orbitals and in case of d , f orbitals there is no necessary relation between a spatial axis and a given m l value. We associate orbitals with x , y , and z axes for our convenience.
  11. 11. Four d orbitals have a roadjunction shape, one d orbital has a dumbbell-with-a-donut shape.
  12. 12. d -Orbitals have specific orientation in space and, thus, five values for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2).
  13. 13. There are d yz -, d xz -, d xy -, d x 2 -y 2 and d z 2 orbitals.
  14. 14. Seven f orbitals have a complex multilobed shape. They have specific orientation in space and, thus, seven values for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, and +3).
  15. 15. Memorize and remember:
  16. 16. S -, p -, d - and f -orbitals are the most common. Although, theoretically, g -, h -, i - asf. orbitals exist, too. The play no known role in chemical bonding.
  17. 17. The 1 st level: 1 type of orbitals.
  18. 18. The 2 nd level: 2 types of orbitals.
  19. 19. The 3 rd level: 3 types of orbitals.
  20. 20. The energy state of the hydrogen atom depends on the principal quantum number n only.
  21. 21. The energy levels in the H atom.
  22. 22. The energy state of an atom of any other element depends on both the principal quantum number n and the angular momentum quantum number l .
  23. 23. The energy levels in many-electron atoms.
  24. 24. THE END

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