Lecture21221

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Lecture21221

  1. 1. Quantum Theory: Orbital Shapes and Energy Levels Lecture 21
  2. 2. An s orbital has a spherical shape, so it can have only one orientation and, thus, only one value for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = 0).
  3. 3. s -Orbitals.
  4. 4. 1s orbital has one region of higher electron density.
  5. 5. 2s orbital has two regions of higher electron density.
  6. 6. A p orbital has a dumbbell shape, so it does have a specific orientation in space and, thus, three values for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = -1, 0, and +1).
  7. 7. There are p z , p x , p y orbitals.
  8. 8. All p orbitals full.
  9. 9. All p orbitals are identical in size, shape, energy. Differ in orientation only.
  10. 10. Both in case of p orbitals and in case of d , f orbitals there is no necessary relation between a spatial axis and a given m l value. We associate orbitals with x , y , and z axes for our convenience.
  11. 11. Four d orbitals have a roadjunction shape, one d orbital has a dumbbell-with-a-donut shape.
  12. 12. d -Orbitals have specific orientation in space and, thus, five values for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2).
  13. 13. There are d yz -, d xz -, d xy -, d x 2 -y 2 and d z 2 orbitals.
  14. 14. Seven f orbitals have a complex multilobed shape. They have specific orientation in space and, thus, seven values for the magnetic quantum number ( m l = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, and +3).
  15. 15. Memorize and remember:
  16. 16. S -, p -, d - and f -orbitals are the most common. Although, theoretically, g -, h -, i - asf. orbitals exist, too. The play no known role in chemical bonding.
  17. 17. The 1 st level: 1 type of orbitals.
  18. 18. The 2 nd level: 2 types of orbitals.
  19. 19. The 3 rd level: 3 types of orbitals.
  20. 20. The energy state of the hydrogen atom depends on the principal quantum number n only.
  21. 21. The energy levels in the H atom.
  22. 22. The energy state of an atom of any other element depends on both the principal quantum number n and the angular momentum quantum number l .
  23. 23. The energy levels in many-electron atoms.
  24. 24. THE END

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