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Lecture09221

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a supplemental resource for students

a supplemental resource for students

Published in: Education, Technology

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Transcript

  • 1. Stoichiometry: Reactions in Solutions Lecture 9
  • 2. What are they working with?
  • 3. We cannot know the amount of a solute directly from its mass. We have to know its concentration before.
  • 4. Solution consists of solute and solvent.
  • 5. Concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance.
  • 6. Concentration is an intensive quality like density or temperature. It does not depend on the volume of the solution.
  • 7. Molarity is the most important way of expressing concentration.
  • 8. Molarity expresses the concentration in units of moles of solute per liter of solution: Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution
  • 9. A sample problem on calculating the molarity of a solution.
  • 10. Molarity can be thought of as a conversion factor used to convert between volume of solution and amount of solute.
  • 11. A sample problem on calculating mass of solute in a given volume of solution.
  • 12. Procedure for Preparation of Molar Solutions:
    • Weigh the solid needed.
    • Transfer the solid to a volumetric flask that contains about half the final volume of solvent.
    • Dissolve the solid thoroughly by swirling.
    • Add solvent until the solution reaches its final volume.
  • 13. When a solution is diluted, only solvent is added.
  • 14. A sample problem on preparing a dilute solution from a concentrated solution.
  • 15. General approach for solving problems on reactions in solutions:
    • Balance the equation.
    • Find the amount of one substance.
    • Relate it to the stoichiometrically equivalent amount of another substance.
    • Convert to the desired units.
  • 16. A sample problem on calculating amounts of reactants and products for a reaction in solution.
  • 17. A sample problem on solving limiting-reactant problems for reactions in solution.
  • 18. THE END