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# Lecture09221

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a supplemental resource for students

a supplemental resource for students

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### Transcript

• 1. Stoichiometry: Reactions in Solutions Lecture 9
• 2. What are they working with?
• 3. We cannot know the amount of a solute directly from its mass. We have to know its concentration before.
• 4. Solution consists of solute and solvent.
• 5. Concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance.
• 6. Concentration is an intensive quality like density or temperature. It does not depend on the volume of the solution.
• 7. Molarity is the most important way of expressing concentration.
• 8. Molarity expresses the concentration in units of moles of solute per liter of solution: Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution
• 9. A sample problem on calculating the molarity of a solution.
• 10. Molarity can be thought of as a conversion factor used to convert between volume of solution and amount of solute.
• 11. A sample problem on calculating mass of solute in a given volume of solution.
• 12. Procedure for Preparation of Molar Solutions: <ul><li>Weigh the solid needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer the solid to a volumetric flask that contains about half the final volume of solvent. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolve the solid thoroughly by swirling. </li></ul><ul><li>Add solvent until the solution reaches its final volume. </li></ul>
• 13. When a solution is diluted, only solvent is added.
• 14. A sample problem on preparing a dilute solution from a concentrated solution.
• 15. General approach for solving problems on reactions in solutions: <ul><li>Balance the equation. </li></ul><ul><li>Find the amount of one substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate it to the stoichiometrically equivalent amount of another substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Convert to the desired units. </li></ul>
• 16. A sample problem on calculating amounts of reactants and products for a reaction in solution.
• 17. A sample problem on solving limiting-reactant problems for reactions in solution.
• 18. THE END