Lecture06221

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Lecture06221

  1. 1. The Components of Matter: Mixtures Lecture 6
  2. 2. Pure substances almost never occurs around us.
  3. 3. Air is a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and some other gases and vapors.
  4. 4. Oceanic water is a mixture of Na + , Mg 2+ , Cl - . SO 4 2- , O 2 , CO 2 , covalent compounds and of course H 2 O.
  5. 5. Two classes of mixtures: <ul><li>Heterogeneous mixtures have one or more visible boundaries between the components. Their composition is not uniform. </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous mixtures have no visible boundaries between the components. Their composition is not uniform. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Size of mixing particles: <ul><li>In heterogeneous mixtures substances are mixed as pieces, grains, drops, flecks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In homogeneous mixtures substances are mixed as atoms, ions, molecules. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solutions can exist in all the three physical states: <ul><li>Liquid solutions: blood substitutes, carbonated water (soda) and other aqueous (water is the solvent), petroleum. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas solutions: air, carbogen, natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid solutions: steel, brass, duralumin, bronze, and other metal alloys. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key distinctions between compounds and mixtures: <ul><li>The proportions of the components of a mixture can vary, of a compound – cannot. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual properties of the components of a mixture are observable, of a compound – are not. </li></ul><ul><li>The components of a mixture can be separated by physical means, of a compound – cannot. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Basic mixture separation techniques: <ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Decantation </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatography. </li></ul>
  10. 10. THE END

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