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Transcript

  • 1. Chemical Bonding: Electronegativity and Polarity Lecture 4
  • 2. Complete electron transfer does not exist. No does complete electron sharing.
  • 3.
    • Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German-born scientist
  • 4. The great majority of compounds have bonds that are most accurately thought of as partially ionic and partially covalent. There is a continuum.
  • 5. What is electronegativity?
  • 6.
    • Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1994), Oregonian scientist
  • 7.  
  • 8. Trends in electronegativity:
    • Electronegativity generally increases up a group and across a period.
    • Nonmetals are more electronegative than metals.
  • 9. Trends in electronegativity
  • 10. How to use electronegativity for determining oxidation number:
    • The more electronegative atom in a bond is assigned all the shared electrons; the less electronegative atom is assigned none.
    • Each atom in a bond is assigned all of its unshared electrons.
    • The oxidation number = number of valence electrons – (number of shared electrons – number of unshared electrons).
  • 11. A polar molecule δ + δ -
  • 12. A sample problem on determining bond polarity from electronegativity values.
  • 13. A greater difference in electronegativity results in larger partial charges and a higher partial ionic character.
  • 14. THE END