The Components of Matter: Elements Lecture 4
<ul><li>Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), French scientist [with spouse] </li></ul>
Lavoisier compiled  a list of 23 elements, that was known at his time  (late 18 th  century).
Enormous amounts of information concerning reactions, properties, and atomic masses of the elements had been accumulated b...
Periodic patterns of behavior were noted by several researchers. They tried to organize the elements according to some fun...
<ul><li>Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907), Russian scientist </li></ul>
Mendeleev’s table (1871) listed the elements by increasing atomic mass, arranged so that  element with similar chemical pr...
An old article in German journal
Each element has a box that contains its atomic number, atomic symbol, and atomic mass. The boxes lie in order of increasi...
The modern periodic table
The boxes are arranged in a grid of periods (horizontal rows). Each period has a number from 1 to 7.
The modern periodic table
The boxes are arranged in a grid of groups (vertical rows). Each group has a number from 1 to 8 and either the letter A or...
The modern periodic table
The new system uses group numbers from 1 to 18. The new and old designation are often specified in parentheses.
The modern periodic table
The maingroup,  or representative, elements are located in eight A groups,  two on the left and six on the right.
The modern periodic table
The transition elements are located in the ten B groups, between groups 2A and 3A.
The modern periodic table
The inner transition elements (the lanthanides and actinides) fit between the elements  in group 3B and group 4B.
The modern periodic table
The metals appear in the large lower left portion  of the table. About three quarters of the elements are metals, includin...
The modern periodic table
The nonmetals appear in the small upper right portion  of the table. They are generally gases or dull, brittle solids at r...
The modern periodic table
The metalloids (semimetals) lie along the staircase line  between metals and nonmetals. They have properties between those...
The modern periodic table
Organic chemistry focuses mainly on the compounds  of carbon, almost always with hydrogen, often with oxygen, nitrogen, ph...
Inorganic chemistry focuses mainly on the compounds of all the other elements.
The alkali metals are the elements  located in Group 1A (except hydrogen): Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
The modern periodic table
The alkaline earth metals are the elements  located in Group 2a: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ra, Ba
The modern periodic table
The halogens are the elements  located in Group 7a: F, Cl, Br, I, At
The modern periodic table
The noble gases are the elements  located in Group 8a: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
The modern periodic table
Elements in a group have similar chemical properties, and elements in a period have different chemical properties.
Periodic table cylindrical
Periodic table spherical
Periodic table spiral
Periodic table crochet
Periodic table pictorial
The periodic table metaphor grew very popular. A lot of non-chemical periodic tables  have been developed.
 
 
Periodic table of the cereals
Periodic table of the desserts
 
THE END
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Lecture04221

  1. 1. The Components of Matter: Elements Lecture 4
  2. 2. <ul><li>Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), French scientist [with spouse] </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lavoisier compiled a list of 23 elements, that was known at his time (late 18 th century).
  4. 4. Enormous amounts of information concerning reactions, properties, and atomic masses of the elements had been accumulated by the mid-19 th century.
  5. 5. Periodic patterns of behavior were noted by several researchers. They tried to organize the elements according to some fundamental property.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907), Russian scientist </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mendeleev’s table (1871) listed the elements by increasing atomic mass, arranged so that element with similar chemical properties fell in the same column.
  8. 8. An old article in German journal
  9. 9. Each element has a box that contains its atomic number, atomic symbol, and atomic mass. The boxes lie in order of increasing atomic number as you move from left to right.
  10. 10. The modern periodic table
  11. 11. The boxes are arranged in a grid of periods (horizontal rows). Each period has a number from 1 to 7.
  12. 12. The modern periodic table
  13. 13. The boxes are arranged in a grid of groups (vertical rows). Each group has a number from 1 to 8 and either the letter A or B.
  14. 14. The modern periodic table
  15. 15. The new system uses group numbers from 1 to 18. The new and old designation are often specified in parentheses.
  16. 16. The modern periodic table
  17. 17. The maingroup, or representative, elements are located in eight A groups, two on the left and six on the right.
  18. 18. The modern periodic table
  19. 19. The transition elements are located in the ten B groups, between groups 2A and 3A.
  20. 20. The modern periodic table
  21. 21. The inner transition elements (the lanthanides and actinides) fit between the elements in group 3B and group 4B.
  22. 22. The modern periodic table
  23. 23. The metals appear in the large lower left portion of the table. About three quarters of the elements are metals, including many main-group elements and all the transition and inner transition elements. They are generally shiny solids at room temperature (mercury is the only liquid), conduct heat and electricity well.
  24. 24. The modern periodic table
  25. 25. The nonmetals appear in the small upper right portion of the table. They are generally gases or dull, brittle solids at room temperature (bromine is the only liquid) and conduct heat and electricity poorly.
  26. 26. The modern periodic table
  27. 27. The metalloids (semimetals) lie along the staircase line between metals and nonmetals. They have properties between those of metals and metalloids.
  28. 28. The modern periodic table
  29. 29. Organic chemistry focuses mainly on the compounds of carbon, almost always with hydrogen, often with oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur.
  30. 30. Inorganic chemistry focuses mainly on the compounds of all the other elements.
  31. 31. The alkali metals are the elements located in Group 1A (except hydrogen): Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
  32. 32. The modern periodic table
  33. 33. The alkaline earth metals are the elements located in Group 2a: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ra, Ba
  34. 34. The modern periodic table
  35. 35. The halogens are the elements located in Group 7a: F, Cl, Br, I, At
  36. 36. The modern periodic table
  37. 37. The noble gases are the elements located in Group 8a: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
  38. 38. The modern periodic table
  39. 39. Elements in a group have similar chemical properties, and elements in a period have different chemical properties.
  40. 40. Periodic table cylindrical
  41. 41. Periodic table spherical
  42. 42. Periodic table spiral
  43. 43. Periodic table crochet
  44. 44. Periodic table pictorial
  45. 45. The periodic table metaphor grew very popular. A lot of non-chemical periodic tables have been developed.
  46. 48. Periodic table of the cereals
  47. 49. Periodic table of the desserts
  48. 51. THE END

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