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Lecture01222

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a supplemental resource for students

a supplemental resource for students

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • 1. Chemical Bonding: Ionic Lecture 1
  • 2. Many, many, many properties, both chemical and physical, are determined by the type of bonding within the substance.
  • 3. Why do atoms bond at all? Because bonding lowers the potential energy between positive and negative particles.
  • 4. The three types of chemical bonding:
    • Ionic based on electron transfer: metals with nonmetals;
    • Covalent based on electron sharing: nonmetals with nonmetals;
    • Metallic based on electron pooling: metals with metals.
  • 5. Ionic, covalent, metallic:
  • 6.
    • Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875-1946), American scientist
  • 7. The octet rule: when atoms bond, they lose, gain, or share electrons to attain a filled outer level of eight (or two) electrons.
  • 8. Let us build Lewis electron-dot symbols for atoms: Si F
  • 9. Let us build a Lewis electron-dot symbol for an ion: Br -
  • 10. What Lewis electron-dot symbols say:
    • For a metal, the total number of dots is the maximum number of electrons an atom loses to form a cation;
    • For a nonmetal, the number of unpaired dots is the number of electrons that become paired either through electron gain or through electron sharing.
  • 11. The central idea of the ionic bonding model is the transfer of electrons from metal atoms to nonmetal atoms to form ions that come together in a solid ionic compound.
  • 12. Three ways to represent formation of a chemical bond (electron transfer):
    • Electron configurations;
    • Electron orbitals;
    • Lewis electron-dot symbols.
  • 13. A sample problem on depicting ion formation.
  • 14. Ionic compounds occur just because of the enormous release of energy when the ions come together and form the solid.
  • 15. Surprisingly, electron-transfer process by itself actually absorbs energy.
  • 16. Ionic compounds exist only because the lattice energy exceeds the energetically unfavorable electron transfer.
  • 17. Ionic compounds are
    • hard;
    • rigid;
    • brittle.
    • Why?
  • 18. THE END