Jannat

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parallel computing

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Jannat

  1. 1. Parallel Organization Presented by:Umma Khatuna Jannat
  2. 2. Traditionally, software has been written for serial computation: To be run on a single computer having a single Central Processing Unit (CPU); A problem is broken into a discrete series of instructions. Instructions are executed one after another. Only one instruction may execute at any moment in time. What is concurrent computing?
  3. 3. Parallel computing In the simplest sense, parallel computing is the simultaneous use of multiple resources to solve a computational problem: To be run using multiple CPUs A problem is broken into discrete parts that can be solved concurrently Each part is further broken down to a series of instructions Instructions from each part execute simultaneously on different CPUs
  4. 4. Parallel Processing Parallel processing is also achieved by using multiple processors clustered together to process one part of a large function simultaneously to obtain results faster. CPU CPU CPU CPU InstructionsProblem
  5. 5. Multiple Processor Organization  Single instruction, single data stream – SISD  Single instruction, multiple data stream – SIMD  Multiple instruction, single data stream – MISD  Multiple instruction, multiple data stream- MIMD
  6. 6. Characteristics of Parallel Processors…
  7. 7. Single Instruction, Single Data Stream ~SISD A serial (non-parallel ) computer Single instruction : only one instruction stream is being acted on by CPU during any one clock cycle Single data :only one data stream is being used as input during any one clock cycle Deterministic execution This is the oldest and even today, the most common type of computer Examples: older generation mainframes, minicomputers and workstations ,most modern day PCs.
  8. 8. SISD Memory ControlProcessor Data stream Instruction stream
  9. 9. Single Instruction, Multiple Data Stream - SIMD Single machine instruction Controls simultaneous execution Number of processing elements Lockstep basis Each processing element has associated data memory Each instruction executed on different set of data by different processors Vector and array processors
  10. 10. Memory Memory Memory Processor Processor Processor ControlInstruction stream Instruction stream Instruction stream Data stream Data stream Data stream SIMD
  11. 11. A single data stream is fed into multiple processing units. Each processing unit operates on the data independently via independent instruction streams. multiple algorithms attempting to crack a single coded message. MULTIPLE INSTRUCTION, SINGLE DATA STREAM - MISD
  12. 12. Memory Data stream Processor Instruction stream Control Data stream Data stream Instruction stream Instruction stream Processor Processor Control Control
  13. 13. Currently, the most common type of parallel computer. Most modern computers fall into this category. Multiple Instruction: every processor may be executing a different instruction stream Multiple Data: every processor may be working with a different data stream Examples: most current supercomputers, networked parallel computer clusters and "grids", multi-processor MULTIPLE INSTRUCTION, MULTIPLE DATA STREAM- MIMD
  14. 14. Uses for Parallel Computing Historically, parallel computing has been considered to be “the high end of computing", and has been used to model difficult scientific and engineering problems found in the real world, Some examples: Atmosphere ,Earth , Environment Physics-applied ,nuclear, high pressure ,fusion, photonics Bioscience , Biotechnology , Genetics Chemistry, Molecular Sciences Geology Mechanical Engineering-from prosthetics to spacecraft Electrical Engineering, Circuit Design Computer Science, Mathematics
  15. 15. Uses in Today’s world… Today, commercial applications provide an equal or greater driving force in the development of faster computers. These applications require the processing of large amounts of data in sophisticated ways for examples: Databases Web search engines, web based business services Medical imaging and diagnosis Pharmaceutical design Management of national and multi-national corporations
  16. 16. Thank You

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