Roundtable 1 Poznam
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Roundtable 1 Poznam Presentation Transcript

  • 1. LSE Environmental Society Roundtable
    • Presentation by Marisa Beck, Jan. 22, 2009
    • Please note: I have collected the information in this presentation to my best knowledge and based on my personal experience in Poznan and the resources listed below. However, of course, neither do I guarantee correctness nor do I claim completeness!
  • 2. POZNAN ... so what???
  • 3. The Essentials
    • The Convention
    • 1992: Rio Earth Summit
    • 192 countries are Parties
    • objective: avoid dangerous climate change
    • Annex I: industrialized countries and economies in transition  commitment to return to 1990 levels
    • Prime authority of Convention: COP
    • Bodies: SBSTA, SBI, expert groups, UNFCCC secretary
    • Observers: 50+ intergovernmental agencies, 600+ NGOs
  • 4. The Essentials
    • The Protocol
    • 1997: adoption in Kyoto, Japan
    • 2005: entry into force
    • ratified by 184 Parties
    • defines binding targets for 37 industrialised countries
    • 1 st commitment period ends in 2012
    • 3 mechanisms: emissions trading, JI, CDM
    • Adaptation Fund
    • CMP: meeting parallel to COP
  • 5. The agenda: Paving the way to Copenhagen
    • COP 14: AWG LCA
    • efforts by emerging economies + USA
    • technology transfer
    • financing mechanism
    • deforestation & REDD
    •  to be concluded by 2009!
  • 6. The agenda: Paving the way to Copenhagen
    • CMP 4: AWG KP
    • new targets for 2nd commitment period
      • 2 degree limit: 25-40% reduction by 2020 in Annex I countries
      • main blockers: Canada, Japan, Russia, Australia
    • further development of CDM: sectoral, policy CDM...
    • to be concluded by 2009
  • 7. The results
    • minimum (formal) requirements for successful negotiations in Copenhagen: mandates for negotiations in both tracks (COP & CMP)
    • Adaptation Fund: progress! Governance issues solved! Ready for implementation!
    •  BUT: No big step forward! Still lack of political will!
  • 8. Technology Transfer & Financing
    • Top spot on Poznan‘s agenda – how come?
    • Convention Art 4.3:
    • „ ... new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing country Parties in complying with their obligations ...“ (source: UN, 1992)
    • Convention Art 4.5:
    • „ ... to promote, facilitate and finance , as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly to developing countries ...““ (source: UN, 1992)
    •  review showed: insufficient implementation!
  • 9. Technology Transfer & Financing
    • COP 13 Bali Action Plan:
    • „ Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner.“ (source: UNFCCC, 2007)
    • NEW: clear linkage of DC actions to cooperation through MRV criteria  definition? performance indicators?
  • 10. Technology Transfer & Financing
    • What are the most important issues?
    • massive scale-up of public funds for adaptation, mitigation necessary
    • large scale technology cooperation required
    • mechanisms to mobilize private investments in innovation, deployment and diffusion of clean technologies
    • heart of the debate: Industry Competitiveness!
  • 11. Technology Transfer & Financing
    • What happened at COP 14?
    • multiple proposals by developing countries:
      • establishment of a new and additional funds/mechanisms/institutions under the UNFCCC
      • binding obligations for Annex I parties (‚polluter pays‘)
      • enhancement of research cooperation & joint ventures
      • compulsory licensing of patented technologies
    •  want access to technologies to boost domestic economy
  • 12. Technology Transfer & Financing
      • blocked by many Annex I countries:
        • use existing institutions, processes & mechanisms
        • focus on (bilateral) voluntary agreements
        • improve „enabling environments“ for tech diffusion, e.g. strong IPR regimes
      • positive exceptions:
        • Norway: auctioning of AAUs
        • Switzerland: carbon tax
      •  want export to new markets, but fear low-cost competition
  • 13. What‘s next?
    • Critical processes in 2009:
      • define shared vision for new agreement: establish political will!
      • establish strong negotiation coalitions, avoid North-South divide
      • leadership of new US-administration?
      • green bail-out investments?
    • On the road to Copenhagen ...
      • parties‘ submissions by February
      • meetings in March/April and June in Bonn
      • first draft of negotiation text expected in June
  • 14. COPENHAGEN ... we can???
  • 15. Wanna know more??? Resources
    • General: www.unfccc.int
    • United Nations (1992): United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. See: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf
    • UNFCCC (2007): Bali Action Plan . Decision -/CP.13. See: http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop_13/application/pdf/cp_bali_action.pdf
    • Poznan results: “Between Poznan and Copenhagen: The climate train in the “valley of death” by C. Bals, Germanwatch. January 2009. http://www.germanwatch.org/klima/c14rese.pdf
  • 16. Wanna know more??? Resources
    • MRVs: “Measuring the way to a new global climate agreement.” Discussion paper by the World Resource Institute. December 2008. http://pdf.wri.org/measuring_the_way_to_a_new_global_climate_agreement.pdf
    • Technology Transfer: “Innovation and Technology Transfer” by S. Tomlinson, P. Zorlu, & C. Langley, an E3G report with contributions from the Chatham House. November 2008. http://www.e3g.org/images/uploads/E3G_Innovation_and_Technology_Full_Report.pdf
  • 17. Wanna know more??? Resources
    • Financing: “Investment and financial flows to address climate change. An update.” Technical Paper by the UNFCCC. December 2008. http://unfccc.int/files/cooperation_and_support/financial_mechanism/application/pdf/background_paper.pdf