MOTIVATION THEORY (MASLOW AND HERZBERG)Presented By:Abdul MuqeetEkomenzoge MetugeNamita AcharyaPrakrity ShresthaUjjwal Kumar Joshi
Motivation• Definition: Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.• Key elements to the definition: – Effort – Persistence – Direction/goal orientation
Links between Motivation and Performance • Performance is an evaluation of the results of a person’s behavior. It involves determining how well or poorly a person has accomplished a task or done a job. • Motivation is only one factor among many that contributes to a worker’s job performance. • Other contributing factors: – Personality and ability – Task difficulty – Resource availability – Working conditions – Chance or luck
Basic motivational concepts• Extrinsic Motivation— drive to action that (as opposed to intrinsic motivation) springs from outside influences instead of from one’s own feelings.• Intrinsic Motivation— stimulation that drives an individual to adopt or change a behavior for his or her own internal satisfaction or fulfillment.• Reward— a thing given in recognition of service, effort, or achievement.• Extrinsic rewards— a reward that is expected by an individual and does not lead to his or her greater satisfaction.• Intrinsic rewards— an outcome that gives an individual personal satisfaction such as that derived from a job well done.
Theories of Motivation• Content Theories – consider need, existence, relatedness, growth, achievement, hygiene and motivating factors. – Need theories, ERG theory, Need and Achievement theory, Two- factor theory.• Process Theories – recognize variables that go into motivation, and their interrelationship. – Expectancy theory, Reinforcement theory, Goal- setting theory.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Physiological Needs: Basic needs for things such as food, water, and shelter that must be met in order for an individual to survive.• Safety Needs: Needs for security, stability, and a safe environment.• Belongingness Needs: Needs for social interaction, friendship, affection, and love.• Esteem Needs: The need to feel good about oneself and one’s capabilities, to be respected by others, and to receive recognition and appreciation.• Self-Actualization Needs: The need to realize one’s full potential as a human being.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHygiene Factor - work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain – maintenance factor – contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied – contributes to absence of complaintsMotivation Factor - work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth – job enrichment – leads to superior performance & effort
Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory Low High Hygiene Factors Job Satisfaction •Quality of supervision •Pay •Company Policies Motivation Factors •Physical Working Conditions •Relation with others •Promotion Opportunities •Job Security •Recognition •Responsibility •Achievement •Opportunities for personal growth Job DissatisfactionHigh Low
Similarities• The basic similarity between these two Theories is that they both assume that specific needs affect behavior.• Maslow’s physiological and safety needs is equal to Herzberg’s hygiene factor whereas Maslow’s esteem, social and self actualization needs are equal to Herzberg’s Motivational factors.
DissimilaritiesCriteria Maslow’s HerzbergType Descriptive PrescriptiveOrder of Needs Hierarchy of needs No Hierarchy•Satisfaction Unsatisfied Needs Need causes Performance•Performance Energizes behavior .i.e.•Relationship this behavior causes performanceEffect of Need Satisfaction A satisfied need is not a A Hygiene Need is not a Motivation except Self- motivator other actualization motivational needs are MotivatorView of Motivation Macro View Micro ViewWorker Level Related to all worker Related to the levels professional job holders.
The important thing is not to stop questioning. - ALBERT EINSTEIN