21st Century MediaNew Frontiers, New Barriers Ujjwal Acharya Federation of Nepali Journalists
21st Century Media• Communication platforms based on internet• Personal, group, community and mass communication through internet• Social Media (blogs, photo-sharing, video sharing, social networking and microblogging)• Mobile devices for mass communication
Internet-based Media• News website o Normally website run by media organization, with or without print/radio/tv, for news dissemination• Blogs o Normally individually run opinion-based diary• Social Media o Somewhat closed social networking (Facebook) / open microblogging (Twitter)
Strengths of Internet Media• Global reach• Easy publication• Interactivity• Multimedia possibility• Permanancy• Timelessness• Unlimited space
Weaknesses of Internet Media• Information overload• Accuracy• Credibility• Opinion-based• Individual• Manipulative
Changed Communication• Source -> Message -> Channel -> Receiver• Receivers were mostly inactive consumer of information, rarely contribution to production• On internet media, receivers no longer live; there are just communicators/active audience• No monopoly of handful of communicators• Were in an age of information overload, and too much of what we watch, hear and read is mistaken, deceitful or even dangerous. Yet you and I can take control and make media serve us by being active consumers and participants. Dan Gillmor in Mediactive
Active Consumption of Information• Internet is filled with thrashes – good information are gold, has to be filtered• Individual producers less likely to fulfill journalistic procedure, principles or ethical standards• Evaluation of information online o Multiple sources o Verification
Citizen Journalism• “public playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information."• Importance of citizen journalism o As information source at crisis time o As watchdog of mainstream media• Derivatives of citizen journalism
Changing Journalism• Internet affects journalism during o Researching o Reporting o Verification o Distribution• “We can’t control future medium, thus we need to specialize in good news storytelling.”
Legal Framework• Freedom of Expression as Human Rights o Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. (Article 19, Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Constitutional Right• Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007, Article 12, Clause 3 Sub-clause a: o Every citizen shall have the following freedoms: freedom of opinion and expression..• Reasonable Restrictions o Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the people of various castes, tribes, religions or communities, or on any act of defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence, or on any act which may be contrary to decent public behaviour or morality.
FoE is not ABSOLUTE right• Key rights as a platform to fight for other rights but not absolute right as it clashes with other rights o Right to live with dignity o Right to privacy o Other rights
Electronic Transaction Act47. Publication of illegal materials in electronic form:(1) If any person publishes or displays any material inthe electronic media including computer, internetwhich are prohibited to publish or display by theprevailing law or which may be contrary to the publicmorality or decent behaviour or any types of materialswhich may spread hate or jealousy against anyone orwhich may jeopardize the harmonious relationssubsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribesand communities shall be liable to the punishmentwith the fine not exceeding One Hundred ThousandRupees or with the imprisonment not exceeding fiveyears or with both.
Ethics• Libertarian vs Social Responsibility Theory• No freedom is free!• Self-control mechanism• Ethical standards o No news manipulation o Truth o No Conflict with Laws
Thank you Ujjwal.email@example.com/ujjwalacharya www.nepalivoices.com