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Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
Research design
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Research design

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  • 1. RESEARCH DESIGN
  • 2. Research design is a set of advance decisions that make up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information.
  • 3. A research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with an economy in procedure In fact research design is a conceptual structure with in which the research is conducted
  • 4. Blueprint Blueprint Plan Plan Guide Guide Framework Framework
  • 5. FACTOR DEFINING RESEARCH DESIGN  What is the study about  Why is the study being made  Where will be the study carried out  What type of data is to be collected  Where can be require data found  What period of time would the will the study include
  • 6. FACTOR DEFINING RESEARCH DESIGN (cont…)  Which technique of data collection to be used  How will be the data anlyse  In what style will the report prepred  What will be the sample side
  • 7. PARTS  The sample design  The observational design  The statistical design  The operational design
  • 8. FEATURE  Specifies the source and type of information relevant to the research problem  Specifies the approach to be used to gather & analyze the data  It include the time and cust budgeting (the boundry for everything )
  • 9. NEED  To have an efficient research operation  To be economical  To have an plan in advance  To have a back up idea
  • 10. FEAURE OF A GOOD DESIGN Good is usually characterised by the adjective like  Appropriate  Efficient  Economical  Flexible
  • 11. FEAURE OF A GOOD DESIGN (cont…)  The design must minimize bias and maximize the reliability  The design providing less experimental error  The design which yield maximum information  The design provide an opportunity to consider many different aspect of problem
  • 12. RELATING CONCEPT  Dependent & Independent variable  Extraneous variable  Control  Confounded relationship  Reseach hypothesis  Experimental & non-experimental hypothesis-testing research
  • 13. RELATING CONCEPT (cont..)  Experimental & control group  Treatment  Experiment  Experimental unit
  • 14. DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGN  Exploratory  Descriptive/Diagnostic  Causal  Please note that research does not necessarily follow the order (1) exploratory, (2) descriptive, and (3) causal designs.
  • 15. EXPLAATORY RESEARCH • Exploratory research is unstructured, informal research undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. • Uses of exploratory research include: 1. Gain background information. 2. Define terms. 3. Clarify problems and hypotheses. 4. Establish research priorities.
  • 16. METHOD USED • Secondary data analysis. Secondary data refers to the process of searching for and interpreting existing info relevant to the research problem (e.g., census data, articles in journals, newspapers, etc.). • Experience (Expert) surveys. Refers to gathering info from those thought to be knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the problem (i.e., ask experts). • Case Analysis. Uses past situations that are similar to the present research problem. • Focus groups. Involves small (8-12) groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through unstructured, spontaneous discussion.
  • 17. IN SUCH CASES  The sample size is small  Non probability sampling design are used  Data requirement are vague  The objective is general rather than specific  No definite recommendation are there as a result of analysis  There is inbuilt flexibility in the design
  • 18. DESCIPTIVE OR DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH  Descriptive research provides answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how.  Note that we cannot conclusively ascertain answers to WHY using descriptive studies.  Diagnostic research determine the frequency with which somethingn occur or its association with something else
  • 19. IN SUCH CASES  Formulating objective of the study  Designing mythos of data collection  Selecting the sample  Collecting the data  Processing and analyzing the data  Reporting the finding  The design is rigid
  • 20. COMPARISION Research Design Exploratory Studies Descriptive/diagnostic studies i. Sampling design Non-probability Probability sampling design sampling design i. Pre-planned design for analysis Observational Unstructured Structured or well design instruments for throughout instruments for collection of data i. No pre-planned design for analysis i. Statistical design collection of data Operational design No fixed decisions about Advanced decisions about the operational procedure. operational procedure.
  • 21. CASUAL RESEARCH • Causality may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form, “If X, then Y.” Conditions for Causality are: • Concomitant Variation: For variable X to cause a change in variable Y, the two must be highly related in that changes in Y are always associated with changes in X. • Temporal Precedence: Refers to the time sequence of occurrence. For variable X to cause Y, it must always occur before or precede Y. • Absence of Competing Explanations: For X to cause Y, other possible causes must be ruled out.
  • 22. Here the researcher studies the hypothesis of casual relationship between variable It require procedure of  Reduce bias  Increased reliability  Relationship between variable  One or more extraneous variable of dependent variable
  • 23. PRINCIPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH  Principle of accuracy  Principle of randomization  Principle of local control
  • 24. THANK YOU

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