Research design


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Research design

  2. 2. Research design is a set of advance decisions that make up the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information.
  3. 3. A research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with an economy in procedure In fact research design is a conceptual structure with in which the research is conducted
  4. 4. Blueprint Blueprint Plan Plan Guide Guide Framework Framework
  5. 5. FACTOR DEFINING RESEARCH DESIGN  What is the study about  Why is the study being made  Where will be the study carried out  What type of data is to be collected  Where can be require data found  What period of time would the will the study include
  6. 6. FACTOR DEFINING RESEARCH DESIGN (cont…)  Which technique of data collection to be used  How will be the data anlyse  In what style will the report prepred  What will be the sample side
  7. 7. PARTS  The sample design  The observational design  The statistical design  The operational design
  8. 8. FEATURE  Specifies the source and type of information relevant to the research problem  Specifies the approach to be used to gather & analyze the data  It include the time and cust budgeting (the boundry for everything )
  9. 9. NEED  To have an efficient research operation  To be economical  To have an plan in advance  To have a back up idea
  10. 10. FEAURE OF A GOOD DESIGN Good is usually characterised by the adjective like  Appropriate  Efficient  Economical  Flexible
  11. 11. FEAURE OF A GOOD DESIGN (cont…)  The design must minimize bias and maximize the reliability  The design providing less experimental error  The design which yield maximum information  The design provide an opportunity to consider many different aspect of problem
  12. 12. RELATING CONCEPT  Dependent & Independent variable  Extraneous variable  Control  Confounded relationship  Reseach hypothesis  Experimental & non-experimental hypothesis-testing research
  13. 13. RELATING CONCEPT (cont..)  Experimental & control group  Treatment  Experiment  Experimental unit
  14. 14. DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGN  Exploratory  Descriptive/Diagnostic  Causal  Please note that research does not necessarily follow the order (1) exploratory, (2) descriptive, and (3) causal designs.
  15. 15. EXPLAATORY RESEARCH • Exploratory research is unstructured, informal research undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. • Uses of exploratory research include: 1. Gain background information. 2. Define terms. 3. Clarify problems and hypotheses. 4. Establish research priorities.
  16. 16. METHOD USED • Secondary data analysis. Secondary data refers to the process of searching for and interpreting existing info relevant to the research problem (e.g., census data, articles in journals, newspapers, etc.). • Experience (Expert) surveys. Refers to gathering info from those thought to be knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the problem (i.e., ask experts). • Case Analysis. Uses past situations that are similar to the present research problem. • Focus groups. Involves small (8-12) groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through unstructured, spontaneous discussion.
  17. 17. IN SUCH CASES  The sample size is small  Non probability sampling design are used  Data requirement are vague  The objective is general rather than specific  No definite recommendation are there as a result of analysis  There is inbuilt flexibility in the design
  18. 18. DESCIPTIVE OR DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH  Descriptive research provides answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how.  Note that we cannot conclusively ascertain answers to WHY using descriptive studies.  Diagnostic research determine the frequency with which somethingn occur or its association with something else
  19. 19. IN SUCH CASES  Formulating objective of the study  Designing mythos of data collection  Selecting the sample  Collecting the data  Processing and analyzing the data  Reporting the finding  The design is rigid
  20. 20. COMPARISION Research Design Exploratory Studies Descriptive/diagnostic studies i. Sampling design Non-probability Probability sampling design sampling design i. Pre-planned design for analysis Observational Unstructured Structured or well design instruments for throughout instruments for collection of data i. No pre-planned design for analysis i. Statistical design collection of data Operational design No fixed decisions about Advanced decisions about the operational procedure. operational procedure.
  21. 21. CASUAL RESEARCH • Causality may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form, “If X, then Y.” Conditions for Causality are: • Concomitant Variation: For variable X to cause a change in variable Y, the two must be highly related in that changes in Y are always associated with changes in X. • Temporal Precedence: Refers to the time sequence of occurrence. For variable X to cause Y, it must always occur before or precede Y. • Absence of Competing Explanations: For X to cause Y, other possible causes must be ruled out.
  22. 22. Here the researcher studies the hypothesis of casual relationship between variable It require procedure of  Reduce bias  Increased reliability  Relationship between variable  One or more extraneous variable of dependent variable
  23. 23. PRINCIPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH  Principle of accuracy  Principle of randomization  Principle of local control
  24. 24. THANK YOU