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# Processing data

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• 1. Peter Norton’s® Introduction to Computers Chapter 2 Processing Data Data 0101111 1100111 0100001 1000111 Useful output
• 2. Learning Objectives: • Identify the main difference between data and information. • List two reasons why computers use the binary number system. • List the two main parts of the CPU and explain how they work together to process data. • Name three differences between RAM and ROM. • List three hardware features that affect processing speed. • Name the two best-known families of CPUs and list their differences.
• 3. Data - raw facts Information - meaningful data (useful output)
• 4. Number Systems: Decimal Numbers - Base 10 Notation Binary Numbers - Base 2 Notation
• 5. Bits and Bytes: • Bit = binary digit - Smallest unit of data • Byte = 8 bits
• 6. Computers represent data with electrical switches. =1 On-off circuits are simple and are not prone to errors. =0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 One byte is made up of 8 bits. (binary 01001000 = decimal 72) (ASCII 01001000 = the letter “H”) 0
• 7. Computer parts communicate using binary numbers. The greater the number of bits moved at one time, the faster the processing speed.
• 8. Text Codes: EBCDIC “EB-si-dic” - (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) ASCII “As-key” - (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Unicode - (Unicode Worldwide Character Standard)
• 9. CPU (Central Processing Unit) - the brain of the computer Two parts: • CU (Control Unit) • ALU (Arithmetic/Logic Unit)
• 10. Control Unit - Controls the flow of data into and from the Central Processing Unit.
• 11. Arithmetic/Logic Unit - Performs Arithmetic functions and Logical operations.
• 12. The CU and ALU are in the CPU.
• 13. Types of Memory: ROM - Read Only Memory (contains the basic input output system or BIOS) RAM - Random Access Memory (user programs and data go here)
• 14. The ROM is nonvolatile because it will not lose its contents when powered down. RAM plugs into sockets on the motherboard.
• 15. Adding RAM often increases system performance.
• 16. The CPU can read RAM much faster than it can the hard disk.
• 17. CPU Manufacturers: • Intel • Motorola • AMD • Cyrix
• 18. CPU Models: • 8086 1978 • 80486 1989 • 8088 1979 • Pentium 1993 • 80286 1982 • Penium Pro 1995 • 80386 1985 • Pentium II 1997
• 19. The Pentium II has 7.5 million About MHz: the faster the clock, the faster the processing speed. (1 MHz = 1 million clock cycles per second) transistors, more than double the number included on the original Pentium chip. It can operate from 233 MHz to 400 MHz and beyond.
• 20. Learning Objectives: Chapter 2 Review • Identify the main difference between data and information. • List two reasons why computers use the binary number system. • List the two main parts of the CPU and explain how they work together to process data. • Name three differences between RAM and ROM. • List three hardware features that affect processing speed. • Name the two best-known families of CPUs and list their differences.