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Learning
 

Learning

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    Learning Learning Presentation Transcript

    • LEARNING
    • Introduction 1. Why do psychologists care about learning? 2. What is and isn’t learning? IS: A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. ISN’T: reflex or effects of drug (temporary) natural maturation (not experience)
    • Association in Learning • Everyday examples... • Association: linking two events or stimuli that occur together in space or time. Early theories of learning were based on principles of association. – Classical Conditioning – Operant Conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning Example… – Learning that results from pairing two events in the environment. – Learn to associate a neutral event with another event or stimulus from the environment.
    • Classical Conditioning • Pavlov: – Paired neutral stimulus (tone/bell) with coming of food. – What occurred when bell alone was sounded? – What is the difference between when the dog salivated to food versus the bell? – Food – naturally causes salivation – Tone/bell – learned to associate with food – causes salivation.
    • Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning Terms: • Two parts: response (action that takes place) stimulus (cause of action) • Response: salivation • Stimulus: food, bell/tone
    • Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning Terms • Bell and Salivation: Conditioned Stimuli and Response – CS (tone/bell) & CR (salivation) – originally NEUTRAL stimulus, that, after being paired with UCS, triggers CR. – learned, NOT automatic. – not naturally occurring.
    • Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner: Learning that relies on associating behavior with its results or consequences. Defined as “operant” – animal is operating on environment – not passive like CC. Highlights importance of reinforcement & punishment in learning.
    • Operant Conditioning Reinforcers i. Positive reinforcers: strengthens response by presenting stimulus after response. ii. Negative reinforcers: strengthens response by removing an aversive stimulus after a response. - NOT PUNISHMENT What happens if you remove reinforcement? – Extinction of response.
    • Social Learning Theory • Also called: Observational Learning • Different take on learning: We not only learn through direct experience, but also by observing and imitating others (through modeling). – Not simple, automatic, requires attention & sometimes motivation
    • Social Learning Theory • • • • Attention Retention Motor reproduction Reinforcement
    • Social Learning Theory Influence of TV and media on behavior: There is a causal link between watching aggressive acts on TV and being aggressive IN SOME CHILDREN. TV/Media – not the ONLY cause of aggressive behavior.
    • BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
    • Definition Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves on individual closer to the desired response
    • Methods of Shaping Behaviour • • • • Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction
    • Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement • Intermittent reinforcement Continuous reinforcement - A desired behaviour is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated
    • Intermittent reinforcement DefinitionA desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated Types• Ratio schedule • Interval schedule
    • • Ratio schedule: Depends upon number of times response made by subject • Interval schedule: Depends upon how much time has passed since the last reinforcement
    • Four categories of intermittent techniques: INTERVAL RATIO FIXED Fixed-interval Fixed-ratio VARIABLE Variableinterval Variable-ratio
    • 1. Fixed interval: When rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. 2. Variable interval: Rewards are distributed in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable
    • 3. Fixed ratio: Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses 4. Variable-ratio: The reward varies relative to the behaviour of the individual
    • Pragmatic learners • Prefer to learn applications first and then learn the theory underlying applications. • Real world problem solving is your forte. Discovery learners • Prefer instructors to allow them todiscover the underlying principlesrather than tell hem the principles in a lecture Critical learners • Prefer to know ‘why’ behind the subject and go beyond the factual material • See learning as intellectual pursuit Lack of Commitment • People who are unwilling to spend the time to master a subject