Introduction to computer

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  • Teaching Tip Figure 9A.2 on page 342 visually describes the sharing process. It can be helpful to have students open a shared file that you control. Make a change then have the students open it again. Alternatively, share a document and allow your students to write in it. Then demonstrate how the shared document changes. Spend time discussing why application servers need to be so powerful.
  • Teaching tip Figure 9A.4 on page 344 shows a print queue. It can be helpful to demonstrate your classroom queue.
  • Teaching tip It is fun if you can setup a teleconference in your classroom. Students get to learn how to join or create the conference. Additionally, they learn how to participate. Finally, students have fun, especially with shared whiteboards.
  • Insider information The text describes needing special software to back up data from user drives. However, the backup utility that comes with Windows 2000 and XP is capable of performing this chore.
  • Teaching tip Use a real world example to describe an organization with interconnected LANs.
  • Teaching tip Blockbuster Video uses a WAN to connect it’s stores nationwide. Customers from Pittsburgh may rent videos in Hilton Head. Late fees will even be displayed!
  • Teaching tip An example of a regional resource is a supercomputer. For example, Pittsburgh has the Pittsburgh Super Computing center (www.psc.edu). The various colleges in Pittsburgh connect to the center through a MAN in Pittsburgh.
  • Insider information PAN is very new. Few devices support PAN. High end cell phones include Bluetooth technology. Once the technology matures, Bluetooth will allow the creation of a PAN.
  • Teaching tip Spend a few minutes here discussing password policies. Describe why it is important not to give out a password. Also describe why longer, more complicated passwords are important.
  • Teaching tip Discuss how users managing their own security settings can be bad.
  • Teaching tip Discuss how your network topology handles collisions. If your students are technical, contrast this with an inferior topology.
  • Teaching tip For technical students take the time to draw the packet structure on the board. The typical structure is destination address | sending address | packet number | total packets | data size | payload | error control.
  • Teaching tip Pages 352 and 353 have diagrams of each network topology
  • Insider information Interference is usually electrical. Magnets, solar flares or electronic devices generate interference.
  • Teaching tip Remind students that bps is bits per second. Gbps then is billion bits per second.
  • Teaching tip Now is the time to briefly discuss 802.11 standards. A full discussion of 802.11 is covered in the next section.
  • Insider Information The Xerox Corporation controls the assignment of Ethernet addresses to NIC manufacturers.
  • Insider information Twisted pair networks cannot achieve higher than 10 Mbps using a hub. Switches are necessary to achieve 100 Mbps or higher.
  • Discussion point Ask who in the class has high speed Internet. Then determine if anyone is sharing this to the rest of the house or dorm. If they are, see if they can describe the setup. Most likely, the sharing is done with a router.
  • Teaching tip Point out that the speed of the cable is the number before the word Base.
  • Teaching tip Have students determine IP addresses for the computer. On 2000/XP enter ipconfig /all. Windows 98 and back enter winipcfg.
  • Discussion Point Have students tell you what BIOS stands for.
  • Introduction to computer

    1. 1. Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Technology Education McGraw-Hill Technology Education Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Technology Education Chapter 9A Network Basics
    3. 3. 9A-3 Network Definition • Set of technologies that connects computers • Allows communication and collaboration between users
    4. 4. 9A-4 The Uses of a Network • Simultaneous access to data – Data files are shared • Access can be limited – Shared files stored on a server – Software can be shared • Site licenses • Network versions • Application servers
    5. 5. 9A-5 The Uses of a Network • Shared peripheral device – Printers and faxes are common shares – Reduces the cost per user – Devices can be connected to the network – Print servers control network printing • Manage the print queue
    6. 6. 9A-6 Sharing Data File server contains documentsFile server contains documents used by other computers.used by other computers.
    7. 7. 9A-7 The Uses of a Network • Personal communication – Email • Instantaneous communication – Conferencing • Tele conferencing • Videoconferencing • Audio-conferencing • Data-conferencing – Voice over IP • Phone communication over network wires
    8. 8. 9A-8 Voice Over IP
    9. 9. 9A-9 The Uses of a Network • Easier data backup – Backup copies data to removable media – Server data backed up in one step
    10. 10. 9A-10 Common Network Types • Local Area Network (LAN) – Contains printers, servers and computers – Systems are close to each other – Contained in one office or building – Organizations often have several LANS
    11. 11. 9A-11 Common Network Types • Wide Area Networks (WAN) – Two or more LANs connected – Over a large geographic area – Typically use public or leased lines • Phone lines • Satellite – The Internet is a WAN
    12. 12. 9A-12 Hybrid Network Types • Campus Area Networks (CAN) – A LAN in one large geographic area – Resources related to the same organization – Each department shares the LAN
    13. 13. 9A-13 Hybrid Network Types • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) – Large network that connects different organizations – Shares regional resources – A network provider sells time
    14. 14. 9A-14 Hybrid Network Types • Home Area Network (HAN) – Small scale network – Connects computers and entertainment appliances – Found mainly in the home
    15. 15. 9A-15 Hybrid Network Types • Personal Area Network (PAN) – Very small scale network – Range is less than 2 meters – Cell phones, PDAs, MP3 players
    16. 16. 9A-16 How Networks Are Structured • Server based network – Node is any network device – Servers control what the node accesses – Users gain access by logging in – Server is the most important computer
    17. 17. 9A-17 How Networks Are Structured • Client/Server network – Nodes and servers share data roles – Nodes are called clients – Servers are used to control access – Database software • Access to data controlled by server – Server is the most important computer
    18. 18. 9A-18
    19. 19. 9A-19 How Networks Are Structured • Peer to peer networks (P2PN) – All nodes are equal – Nodes access resources on other nodes – Each node controls its own resources – Most modern OS allow P2PN – Distributing computing is a form – Kazaa
    20. 20. 9A-20
    21. 21. 9A-21 Network Topologies • Topology – Logical layout of wires and equipment – Choice affects • Network performance • Network size • Network collision detection – Several different types
    22. 22. 9A-22 Network Topologies • Packets – Pieces of data transmitted over a network • Packets are created by sending node • Data is reassembled by receiving node – Packet header • Sending and receiving address – Packet payload • Number and size of data • Actual data – Packet error control
    23. 23. 9A-23 Network Topologies • Bus topology – Also called linear bus – One wire connects all nodes – Terminator ends the wires – Advantages • Easy to setup • Small amount of wire – Disadvantages • Slow • Easy to crash
    24. 24. 9A-24 Network Topologies • Star topology – All nodes connect to a hub • Packets sent to hub • Hub sends packet to destination – Advantages • Easy to setup • One cable can not crash network – Disadvantages • One hub crashing downs entire network • Uses lots of cable – Most common topology
    25. 25. 9A-25 Star Topology
    26. 26. 9A-26 Network Topologies • Ring topology – Nodes connected in a circle – Tokens used to transmit data • Nodes must wait for token to send – Advantages • Time to send data is known • No data collisions – Disadvantages • Slow • Lots of cable
    27. 27. 9A-27 Network Topologies • Mesh topology – All computers connected together – Internet is a mesh network – Advantage • Data will always be delivered – Disadvantages • Lots of cable • Hard to setup
    28. 28. 9A-28 Mesh Topology
    29. 29. 9A-29 Network Media • Links that connect nodes • Choice impacts – Speed – Security – Size
    30. 30. 9A-30 Wire Based Media • Twisted-pair cabling – Most common LAN cable – Called Cat5 or 100BaseT – Four pairs of copper cable twisted – May be shielded from interference – Speeds range from 1 Mbps to 1,000 Mbps
    31. 31. 9A-31 Wire Based Media • Coaxial cable – Similar to cable TV wire – One wire runs through cable – Shielded from interference – Speeds up to 10 Mbps – Nearly obsolete
    32. 32. 9A-32 Wire Based Media • Fiber-optic cable – Data is transmitted with light pulses – Glass strand instead of cable – Immune to interference – Very secure – Hard to work with – Speeds up to 100 Gbps
    33. 33. 9A-33 Wireless Media • Data transmitted through the air • LANs use radio waves • WANs use microwave signals • Easy to setup • Difficult to secure
    34. 34. 9A-34 Network Hardware • Network interface cards – Network adapter – Connects node to the media – Unique Machine Access Code (MAC)
    35. 35. 9A-35 Network Hardware • Network linking devices – Connect nodes in the network – Cable runs from node to device – Crossover cable connects two computers
    36. 36. 9A-36 Network Hardware • Hubs – Center of a star network – All nodes receive transmitted packets – Slow and insecure
    37. 37. 9A-37 Network Hardware • Switches – Replacement for hubs – Only intended node receives transmission – Fast and secure
    38. 38. 9A-38 Network Hardware • Bridge – Connects two or more LANs together – Packets sent to remote LAN cross • Other packets do not cross – Segments the network on MAC addresses
    39. 39. 9A-39 Network Hardware • Router – Connects two or more LANs together – Packets sent to remote LAN cross – Network is segmented by IP address – Connect internal networks to the Internet – Need configured before installation
    40. 40. 9A-40 Network Hardware • Gateway – Connects two dissimilar networks – Connects coax to twisted pair – Most gateways contained in other devices
    41. 41. 9A-41 Network Cabling • Cabling specifications – Bandwidth measures cable speed • Typically measured in Mbps – Maximum cable length – Connector describes the type of plug
    42. 42. 9A-42 Network Cabling • Ethernet – Very popular cabling technology – 10 Base T, 10Base2, 10Base5 – Maximum bandwidth 10 Mbps – Maximum distances100 to 500 meters
    43. 43. 9A-43 Network Cabling • Fast Ethernet – Newer version of Ethernet – Bandwidth is 100 Mbps – Uses Cat5 or greater cable • Sometimes called 100Base T – Requires a switch
    44. 44. 9A-44 Network Cabling • Gigabit Ethernet – High bandwidth version of Ethernet – 1 to 10 Gbps – Cat 5 or fiber optic cable – Video applications
    45. 45. 9A-45 Network Cabling • Token ring – Uses shielded twisted pair cabling – Bandwidth between 10 and 25 Mbps – Uses a multiple access unit (MAU) – Popular in manufacturing and finance
    46. 46. 9A-46 Network Protocols • Language of the network – Rules of communication – Error resolution – Defines collision and collision recovery – Size of packet – Naming rules for computers
    47. 47. 9A-47 Network Protocols • TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol – Most popular protocol – Machines assigned a name of 4 numbers • IP address • 209.8.166.179 is the White House’s web site – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol • Simplifies assignment of IP addresses – Required for Internet access
    48. 48. 9A-48 Network Protocols • IPX/SPX – Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange – Older protocol – Associated with Novell Netware – Replaced by TCP/IP
    49. 49. 9A-49 Network Protocols • NetBEUI – Network BIOS Extended User Interface – Used by Windows to name computers – Transmission details handled by TCP/IP
    50. 50. 9A-50 Network Protocols • Token ring – Popular in manufacturing and finance – Nodes communicate when they have the token
    51. 51. Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Technology Education Chapter 9A End of Chapter
    52. 52. 9A-52 Project due Nov. 16 • Play the game of FreeCell. • small number on next larger number and alternating color • e.g. Heart Queen on Club King and Spade Jack on Heart Queen • goal: to throw all cards to destination pile • current smallest number of the suit: can be thrown to destination pile • any card can be moved to empty line (stack) • any card can be moved to temporary work space (TMP) • Print every step. • Your last two digits + 1000 are the game number you have to solve. • Game #617: • HQ  CK, S2  TMP, SJ  HQ, C10  DJ, HK  TMP, HK  Line8, • SK  TMP, S10  TMP, SQ  HK, HJ  SQ, S10  HJ, H4  TMP, • D5  C6, H9  S10, C3  TMP, D9  C10, C3 throw, S3  TMP, • H4  Line4, S3  H4, D4  TMP, D3  TMP, D2  S3, C10  Line7, • H5  TMP, DJ  CQ, S4  D5, C4 throw, D3  S4, CQ  DK, • C10  DJ, S7  TMP, SK  Line7, HQ  SK, D4 throw, S3 throw, • S4 throw, H5  C6, CK  TMP, C9  TMP, S9  TMP, CK  Line4, • DQ  CK, CJ  DQ, C7 throw, H6 throw, S8  H9, H7  S8, • S6  H7, D6 throw, S8 throw, S9 throw, CQ  Line2, DK  TMP, • H10  TMP, D10  TMP

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