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Indian financial system



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  • 1. Indian Financial System 1
  • 2. Indian Financial System Indian financial system consists of formal and informal financial system.  Based on the financial system financial market, financial instruments and financial intermediation can be categorized depending upon functionality. 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. Formal and Informal Financial System The financial systems of most developing countries are characterized by co-existence and co-operation between the formal and informal financial sectors. The formal financial sector is characterized by the presence of an organized, institutional and regulated system which caters to the financial needs of the modern spheres of economy. The informal financial sector is an unorganized, non-institutional and non-regulated system dealing with traditional and rural spheres of the economy. 4
  • 5. Component of Formal Financial System Regulators Financial Institutions Financial Markets Financial Instruments Financial Services 5
  • 6. Regulators The formal financial system comes under the regulations of the ministry of finance (MOF), reserve Bank of India (RBI), Securities and Exchange board of India (SEBI) and other regulatory bodies. 6
  • 7. Financial Institutions 7
  • 8. Financial Instruments 8
  • 9. Financial Markets 9
  • 10. Indian Financial System – An Overview PHASES * Upto 1951 Pvt. Sector * 1951 to 1990 Public Sector * Early Nineties Privatisation * Present Status Globalisation 10
  • 11. Indian Financial System – An Overview Orderly mechanism & structure in economy. Mobilises the monetary resources/capital from surplus sectors. Distributes resources to needy sectors. Transformation of savings into investment & consumption. Financial Markets – Places where the above activities take place 11
  • 12. Pre 1951 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Control of Money Lenders No Laws / Total Private Sector No Regulatory Bodies Hardly any industrialization Banks – Traditional lenders for Trade and that too short term Main concentration on Traditional Agriculture Narrow industrial securities market (i.e. Gold/Bullion/Metal but largely linked to London Market) Absence of intermediatary institutions in long-term financing of industry Industry had limited access to outside saving/resources. 12
  • 13. 1951 to 1990 Moneylenders ruled till 1951. No worth-while Banks at that time. Industries depended upon their own money. 1951 onwards 5 years PLAN commenced. PVT. SECTORS TO PUBLIC SECTOR – MIXED ECONOMY 1st 5 year PLAN in 1951 – Planned Economic Process. As part of Alignment of Financial Systems – Priorities laid down by Govt. – Policies. MAIN Elements of Fin. Organisations i. Public ownership of Financial Institution ii. Strengthening of Institutional Structure iii. Protection to Investors iv. Participation in Corporate Management 13 v. Organisational Deficiencies.
  • 14. 1951-1990 Nationalization RBI 1948 SBI LIC Banks 1956 (take-over of Imperial Bank of India) 1956 (Merges of over 250 Life Insurance Companies) 1969 (14 major banks with Deposits of over Rs. 50 Crs.nationalised) 1980 (6 more Banks) Insurance 1972 (General Insurance Corp. GIC by New India, Oriental, united and National. 14
  • 15. 1951-1990 Development • • • • • • • Directing the Capital in conformity with Planning priorities Encouragement to new entrepreneurs and small set-ups Development of Backward Region IFCI (1948) State Finance Corporation (1951) Purely Mortgage institution IDBI (1964) As subsidiary of RBI to provide Project / Term Finance ICICI (1966) Channelizing of Foreign Currency Loan from World Bank to Pvt. Sector and underwriting of Capital issues. • SIDC’s & SIIC State Level Corporations for SME sector • UTI (1964) to enable small investors to share Industrial Growth • IRCI (1971) to take care of rehabilitation of sick-mills promoted by IDBI, Banks & LIC-Name changed to IIBI in 1997 15
  • 16. POST 1990s IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS Development Financial Institutions : (DFIs) • Started providing Working Capital also • Set up CREDIT RATING AGENCIES CRISIL(IPO IN 1993-94; standard & poor acquires 9.68% in 1996-97 S & P acquires shares / holding up to 58.46%) ICRA Set up in 1991 by leading FIs/Banks/Fin. Ser. Cos. And Moody’s CARE Set-up by IFCI/Banks. FITCH a 100% subsidiary of FITCH Group. • • Privatisation of DFI Reduction in Govt. holding & Public Participation e.g. IFCI Ltd., IDBI Ltd., ICICI Ltd. Conversion into Banking / Merger into Banking Companies IDBI Bank & ICICI Bank Issuance of Bond by DFIs without Govt.’s Guarantees to mobilize resources. • Reduction in holding of Govt. in Banks, i.e. Public Participation / Listing • 16
  • 17. POST 1990 INDUSTRIES • • • • • • • • Rise & Growth of Service Sector industries. Reliance & Dependence on technology. E-mail & mobile made sea-change in communication, data collection etc. Computerization – a catch phrase and inevitable need of an hour. Dependent on Capital Market rather than only Debts dependency. Scalability of operations through globally competitive size. Broad basing of Board. Professional Management. NBFC • • NBFC under RBI governance to finance retail assets and mobilize small/medium sized savings. Very large NBFCs are emerging (Shri Ram Transport Finance, Birla, Tata Finance, Sundaram Finance, Reliance Finance, DLF, Religare etc. 17
  • 18. POST 1990 Commercial Bank Mutual Funds Capital Market Secondary Market Money Market 18
  • 19. GLOBAL FINANCIAL SYSTEMS IBRD (World Bank) Long-Term Capital Assistance IFCI To finance PRIVATE enterprises in the form of loans & equity IDA Affiliate of World Bank Soft – Loan window of the Bank. Mainly for developing & under-developed nations. Re-payment period upto 50 years Govt. & Private, both, eligible. MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency – an affiliate of World (1988) Bank Provides guarantee for investment in needy countries. ECAFE (Economic Commission for Asia & Far East) promote investment in Asia & Far East and also finance priority area. Also co-ordinates with U.N. agencies. 19
  • 20. Global Financial System – An Overview Functions of Financial Market • • • • • Price Discovery Liquidity Cost of Transactions (saver search & information costs) Transfer of savings from one sector to other Reflects as Barometer for economic growth Financial Assets • • • • • • • Treasury Bonds Debt Equity Commercial Paper/Debentures etc. Euro Bonds. Gold/Silver Cross Border Bonds /instruments. 20
  • 21. STRUCTURE OF FINANCIAL MARKETS IN INDIA Financial Markets in India Debt Market Primary / Secondary RBI Forex Market RBI Capital Market Primary / Secondary & Depository SEBI Insurance Life/General IRDA Banks (including RRBs, co-op etc) RBI Mutual Funds, Venture Funds, Investment Bonds RBI/SEBI REGULATORY AUTHORITY 21