--between at least two interdependent
--who perceive incompatible goals, scare
--interference from others in achieving
their goals” (Wilmot and Hocker, 1998)
Conflicts exist whenever incompatible
Sources of Conflict
may originate from a number of
different sources, including:
Differences in information, beliefs, values,
interests, or desires.
A scarcity of some resource.
Rivalries in which one person or group
competes with another.
Desirability of Conflict
can be desirable.
Conflict helps eliminate or reduce the
likelihood of groupthink.
A moderate level of conflict across tasks
within a group resulted in increased group
performance while conflict among
personalities resulted in lower group
Undesirability of Conflict
can be hard to control once
they have begun.
◦ The trend is toward escalation and
◦ When conflict escalates to the point of being
out of control, it almost always yields negative
Cognition and personalisation
and Mouton (1970) proposed a
grid that shows various conflict
◦ The 1,1 style is the hands-off approach, also
◦ The 1,9 position, also called accommodation, is
◦ The 5,5 position represents a willingness to
◦ The 9,1 is the bullheaded approach, also
◦ The optimum style for reducing conflict is the
9,9 approach, also called collaboration.