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The Role of Writers in Nation Building and Nationhood   as analyzed in Salleh Ben Joned’s Selected Writings Presented by: ...
Introduction and background <ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Multiethnic, Multicultural & Plural Society (Mainly: Malay,...
The Nation <ul><li>Not natural occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrications and constructions perceived in the minds of man </...
Nation, Nationalism & Nation Building <ul><li>Nationalism : related in 2 senses – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology  (behavio...
Malaysian Situation <ul><li>“ Malaysian situation and context are ever changing </li></ul><ul><li>Undergoing modifications...
3 phases of formation of  national culture: <ul><li>According to Fanon: </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation of colonial resistanc...
‘ A Samad  Ismail- The Man and His Myth’ ( Salleh Ben Joned. 1987 ) from Nothing Is Sacred <ul><li>Roles and tribulations ...
‘ In Memoriam Isako San’ by Salleh Ben Joned (1994:136) in As I Please <ul><li>Manifests the ‘3 rd  Phase’:  Fighting Phas...
Malaysian Writer’s dilemma <ul><li>‘ Testing the Parameter ’   (Salleh.1994:51) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ We all know that our  ...
Malaysian Writer’s dilemma <ul><li>Rojak is Good for Nation Building’  (Salleh.1994:55) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ What is wrong ...
Restrictions, Prohibitions and Control: <ul><li>The Printing Presses  and  Publications Acts, The Official Secrets Acts , ...
Article number: 149 of the Constitution of Malaysia <ul><li>149.   (1)  If an act of parliament recites that action has be...
Freedom of Expression <ul><li>In a  United nations Paper by the General Assembly, OBV/555,PI/1714 on the subject of ‘Press...
<ul><li>Media  possessed  great power </li></ul><ul><li>Journalism kindle dialogue that liberates societies to function ef...
<ul><li>There are many variants of writers; </li></ul><ul><li>script writers, journalists, novelist, columnist, reporter…a...
Thank You…Terima Kasih Fouzia Hassan Abdullah ‘Aspiring Writer ’ http://jizia.blogspot.com  /  http://journaloffouzia.blog...
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The Role of Writers in Nation Building Oct 2011 version

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  1. 1. The Role of Writers in Nation Building and Nationhood as analyzed in Salleh Ben Joned’s Selected Writings Presented by: Fouzia Hassan Abdullah P 34866, School of Languages and Linguistics, UKM, Bangi 2007
  2. 2. Introduction and background <ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Multiethnic, Multicultural & Plural Society (Mainly: Malay, Chinese, Indians, Sabahan and Sarawakians and minority) </li></ul><ul><li>Study on the ‘Role of Writers in Nation Building’ </li></ul><ul><li>Through Salleh Ben Joned’s Selected writings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As I Please (1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing Is Sacred (2003) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Nation <ul><li>Not natural occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrications and constructions perceived in the minds of man </li></ul><ul><li>Like buildings, can rise or fall and disintegrate </li></ul><ul><li>(Mc Leod, John. 2000:68) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ imagined political community’ </li></ul><ul><li>Imagined: some members might never encounter each other in reality </li></ul><ul><li>But in each lives image of communion </li></ul><ul><li>Imagined as part of a greater collective </li></ul><ul><li>(Benedict Anderson taken from McLeod. 2000:68) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nation, Nationalism & Nation Building <ul><li>Nationalism : related in 2 senses – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology (behavioural entity of nation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentiment (of loyalty towards nation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Evans and Newham. 1998:346-349) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Perpaduan Kaum dan Toleransi Agama di Malaysia’ in journal Pemikir, no 41 July-September 2005 by Ding Choo Ming. </li></ul><ul><li>Stated Syed Husin (1976:53) expounded: at present day, mass media and education have eminent role in dissemination of information and knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>to promote understanding and tolerance among multiethnic groups that co-exist in Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salleh wrote on these in articles ‘ The Spectre of ‘Corporate-Lit ’ from As I Please </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ A Samad Ismail-The Man and His Myth’ from Nothing Is Sacred </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Malaysian Situation <ul><li>“ Malaysian situation and context are ever changing </li></ul><ul><li>Undergoing modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Process of adjustment with the global world and situations at home </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of nation constantly challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Entrenched in ongoing struggle for adaptation and revival </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of nation being reshaped and re-interpreted </li></ul><ul><li>( Claudia Derichs-Nationbuilding in malaysia under Conditions of Globalization:htpp ://www.uni.duisburg.essen.de/d/paper 25.pdf) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3 phases of formation of national culture: <ul><li>According to Fanon: </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation of colonial resistance in 3 phases; </li></ul><ul><li>‘ unqualified assimilation’: </li></ul><ul><li>Copying the dominant trends in literature of coloniser </li></ul><ul><li>Native writers reproduce culture of colonisers </li></ul><ul><li>Native cultural traditions ignored or marginalised </li></ul><ul><li>‘ turns backwards/falls back’: </li></ul><ul><li>Falls back on culture of indigenous and native people before colonization </li></ul><ul><li>‘ fighting phase’: </li></ul><ul><li>Native intellectual/writers directly involved in peoples struggle, modifications of narrations-efforts at forging national consciousness </li></ul>
  7. 7. ‘ A Samad Ismail- The Man and His Myth’ ( Salleh Ben Joned. 1987 ) from Nothing Is Sacred <ul><li>Roles and tribulations and contentions faced by a writer in nation building: </li></ul><ul><li>At one time, he was Deputy Editor-in-chief of the New Straits Times Group. Then he disappeared from public view for a number of years, during that time, he was a guest of the Government at detention Camp-the third such experience in his long eventful career. Now, one is told, he is the NST’s Editorial Adviser- a position that is almost as difficult to define as the man himself’ (Salleh. 2003:345) </li></ul><ul><li>A Samad Ismail: The Man </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.rmaf.org.ph/Awardees/Biography/BiographySamadIsmailAbd.htm </li></ul>
  8. 8. ‘ In Memoriam Isako San’ by Salleh Ben Joned (1994:136) in As I Please <ul><li>Manifests the ‘3 rd Phase’: Fighting Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Ishak Haji Muhammad (Pak Sako) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote ‘Putera Gunung Tahan’ </li></ul><ul><li>Satirical and ridicules colonisers in a subtle way </li></ul>
  9. 9. Malaysian Writer’s dilemma <ul><li>‘ Testing the Parameter ’ (Salleh.1994:51) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ We all know that our censorship laws are very stringent….Its up to the writers and publishers to exploit the limited freedom that exists. In other words, to ‘test the parameters’ or perimeter of the permissible’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The (Malay) Malaysian Writer’s Dilemma’ (Salleh.1994:47) </li></ul><ul><li>‘… Malaysian of Malay origin, self respect and dream of brotherhood of man are as vital as the air he breathes…’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ But in this country, ‘loyalty’ is a very difficult business…if a writer who stubbornly persists in trying to see through and beyond the inherited blinkers of race and religion , what you call ‘loyalty to truth and beauty, justice and freedom’ can be considered a betrayal . (Salleh. 1994:57) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Malaysian Writer’s dilemma <ul><li>Rojak is Good for Nation Building’ (Salleh.1994:55) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ What is wrong with kebudayaan rojak ? Malaysian like rojak. It’s good for them. Unity in diversity is certainly better for our vitality of our cultural life than the imposition of an artificially conceived national culture through legislation. A living culture, as everyone knows, grows naturally; it cannot be programmed or legislated according to abstract recipe’ </li></ul>
  11. 11. Restrictions, Prohibitions and Control: <ul><li>The Printing Presses and Publications Acts, The Official Secrets Acts , The Internal Security Act and the Seditious Publications (Prohibition) ordinance further impede and restrict the complete freedom of writers to give voice to their thoughts. The Constitution further inhibits the complete freedom of expression in view of national security. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Article number: 149 of the Constitution of Malaysia <ul><li>149. (1) If an act of parliament recites that action has been taken or threatened by any substantial body of persons, whether inside or outside the Federation - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) to cause, or to cause a substantial number of citizens to fear, organised violence against persons or property ; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) to excite disaffection against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or any Government in the Federation; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different races or other classes of the population likely to cause violence; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(d) to procure the alteration, otherwise than by lawful means, of anything by law established; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e) which is prejudicial to the maintenance or the functioning of any supply or service to the public or any class of the public in the Federation or any part thereof; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(f) which is prejudicial to public order in, or the security of, the Federation or any part thereof, </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>In a United nations Paper by the General Assembly, OBV/555,PI/1714 on the subject of ‘Press Freedom Event’s theme: Media, Development, Poverty Eradication ’; Speakers urge governments to reaffirm commitment to ‘Freedom of Expression’. </li></ul><ul><li>Shashi Tharoor, Under Secretary –General for Communications and Public Information stresses: free press is an essential human right & the foundation of all democratic societies. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Media possessed great power </li></ul><ul><li>Journalism kindle dialogue that liberates societies to function effectively, by speaking truth to power and exposing injustices. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments to reaffirm their commitment to the right to ‘seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers’ as set out in article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>With freedom comes responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Shashi Tharoor: ‘Media should not be vehicles for incitement or degradation, or for spreading hatred.’ </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to strike a balance between press freedom and responsible reporting , and all writers should likewise practice this. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>There are many variants of writers; </li></ul><ul><li>script writers, journalists, novelist, columnist, reporter…and the list goes on. </li></ul><ul><li>Should use their talents, ingenuities to capture the hearts and minds of the people , to mould a nation, to strive for their aspired identity against the neo colonialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Should influence their audience through the lyrics that exist in songs , through advertisements, through messages in films, through blogs on the internet,… through…... and so on and so forth…… The secret is in understanding human nature, steps taken through historical incidences and lessons, through creativity and innovations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank You…Terima Kasih Fouzia Hassan Abdullah ‘Aspiring Writer ’ http://jizia.blogspot.com / http://journaloffouzia.blogspot.com http://pkukmweb.ukm.my/~solls09/Proceeding/PDF/fouzia.pdf http://www.artreview.com/profile/FouziaHassanAbdullah http://www.scribd.com/doc/37865879/an-Industri-Seni-Visual-Di-Malaysia-Kertas-Kerja-Final http://www.scribd.com/doc/41150472 http://sinchan.wordpress.com/2007/02/16/aping-culture-youth-are-good-at-%E2%80%98aping%E2%80%99/ (F.Abdullah) http://sinchan.wordpress.com/2007/03/08/who-are-we-really%E2%80%A6-siapakah-kita-sebenarnya/ http://sinchan.wordpress.com/2007/04/30/everyone-is-too-busy-nowadays%E2%80%A6/#more-61 http://sinchan.wordpress.com/2007/05/10/happy-mothers-day-fathers-day-and-parents-day /
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