Section
Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change
odiraharjBy:Bud
B u i l d i n g I...
Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change
Structural organizational changes enabled...
Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change
Structural organizational changes enabled...
Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGEORGANIZATIONAL CHANG...
Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change
Business process management (BPM)Business...
Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change
AS-IS BUSINESS PROCESS FOR PURCHASING A B...
Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change
REDESIGNED PROCESS FOR PURCHASING A BOOK ...
Section
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
odiraharjBy:Bud
B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
Systems developmentSystems developmentSystems developmentSystems ...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENTTHE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
PROCESSPROCESS
Bui...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
S t l iS t l iSystems analysisSystems analysis
• Analysis of prob...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
S t l i ( t )S t l i ( t )System analysis (cont.)System analysis ...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
Systems designSystems designy gy g
• Describes system specificati...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
ProgrammingProgramming
• System specifications from design stage ...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
C iC iConversionConversion
• Process of changing from old system ...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
Production and maintenanceProduction and maintenanceProduction an...
Systems development overviewSystems development overview
SUMMARY OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
CORE ACTIVITY DESCRIPTI...
Section
Alt ti t b ildi hAlt ti t b ildi hAlternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
o...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Other SystemsOther Systems--Building Method...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Structured Methodologies
Structured methods...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Waterfall methodologyWaterfall methodology
...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Structured Methodologies
Waterfall methodol...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Structured Methodologies
Parallel developme...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Structured Methodologies
odiraharjBy:Bud
21...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
RAD Methodologies
• Process of creating wor...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
RAD Methodologies
Phased developmentPhased ...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Phased developmentPhased developmentRAD Met...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
RAD Methodologies
PrototypingPrototypingPro...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
RAD Methodologies
Prototyping processProtot...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
RAD Methodologies
Throwaway prototypingThro...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
RAD Methodologies
Throwaway prototypingThro...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Agile Methodologies
A il d l tA il d l tAgi...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Agile Methodologies
Extreme programming (XP...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Agile Methodologies
Extreme programming (XP...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Criteria for selecting a methodCriteria for...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Application Software Packages
Software pack...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Outsourcing
O t iO t iOutsourcingOutsourcin...
Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches
Outsourcing
O t iO t iOutsourcingOutsourcin...
T h k YT h k Y ☺☺T h a n k Yo u …T h a n k Yo u … ☺☺
Information Technology - Module 4: Software and Information Systems Building Methods
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Information Technology - Module 4: Software and Information Systems Building Methods

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This is the 4th Module of IF-116 Information Technology Subject discussing the methodologies used in building information systems and softwares.

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Information Technology - Module 4: Software and Information Systems Building Methods

  1. 1. Section Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change odiraharjBy:Bud B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  2. 2. Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change Structural organizational changes enabled by ITStructural organizational changes enabled by ITg g yg g y 1. Automation • Increases efficiency • Replaces manual tasks 2. Rationalization of procedures • Streamlines standard operating procedures • Often found in programs for making continuous quality improvements o improvements o Total quality management (TQM) o Six sigma diraharjBy:Bud 1 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  3. 3. Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change Structural organizational changes enabled by ITStructural organizational changes enabled by ITStructural organizational changes enabled by ITStructural organizational changes enabled by IT 3. Business process redesign • Analyze, simplify, and redesign business processesAnalyze, simplify, and redesign business processes • Reorganize workflow, combine steps, eliminate repetition 4. Paradigm shiftsg • Rethink nature of business • Define new business model o • Change nature of organization diraharjBy:Bud 2 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  4. 4. Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGEORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE CARRIES RISKS AND REWARDSCARRIES RISKS AND REWARDS The most common forms of i ti l horganizational change are automation and rationalization. These relatively slow-moving and slow changing strategies presentslow-changing strategies present modest returns but little risk. Faster and more comprehensive change—such as redesign and o change such as redesign and paradigm shifts—carries high rewards but offers substantial chances of failure. diraharj chances of failure. By:Bud 3 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  5. 5. Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change Business process management (BPM)Business process management (BPM) • Variety of tools, methodologies to analyze, design, optimize processes • Used by firms to manage business process redesign Steps in BPMSteps in BPMpp 1. Identify processes for change 2. Analyze existing processes o y g p 3. Design the new process 4. Implement the new process diraharj p p 5. Continuous measurement By:Bud 4 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  6. 6. Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change AS-IS BUSINESS PROCESS FOR PURCHASING A BOOK FROM A PHYSICAL BOOKSTORE odiraharjBy:Bud 5 Purchasing a book from a physical bookstore requires many steps to be performed by both the seller and the customer. B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  7. 7. Systems as planned organizational changeSystems as planned organizational change REDESIGNED PROCESS FOR PURCHASING A BOOK ONLINE odiraharj Using Internet technology makes it possible to redesign the process for purchasing a book so that it requires fewer steps and consumes fewer resources. By:Bud 6 resources. B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  8. 8. Section Systems development overviewSystems development overview odiraharjBy:Bud B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  9. 9. Systems development overviewSystems development overview Systems developmentSystems developmentSystems developmentSystems development Activities that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or opportunitysolution to an organizational problem or opportunity 1. Systems analysis 2 Systems design2. Systems design 3. Programming 4 Testing o 4. Testing 5. Conversion 6 Production and maintenance diraharj 6. Production and maintenance By:Bud 7 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  10. 10. Systems development overviewSystems development overview THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENTTHE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESSPROCESS Building a system canBuilding a system can be broken down into six core activities. o six core activities. diraharjBy:Bud 8 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  11. 11. Systems development overviewSystems development overview S t l iS t l iSystems analysisSystems analysis • Analysis of problem to be solved by new system • Defining the problem and identifying causes • Specifying solutions • Identifying information requirements• Identifying information requirements • Includes feasibility study I l ti f ibl d d i t t? o • Is solution feasible and good investment? • Is required technology, skill available? diraharjBy:Bud 9 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  12. 12. Systems development overviewSystems development overview S t l i ( t )S t l i ( t )System analysis (cont.)System analysis (cont.) • Establishing information requirements • Who needs what information, where, when, and how • Define objectives of new/modified system • Detail the functions new system must perform• Detail the functions new system must perform • Faulty requirements analysis is leading cause of systems failure and high systems development cost o failure and high systems development cost diraharjBy:Bud 10 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  13. 13. Systems development overviewSystems development overview Systems designSystems designy gy g • Describes system specifications that will deliver functions identified during systems analysisidentified during systems analysis • Should address all managerial, organizational, and technological components of system solutiontechnological components of system solution • Role of end users • User information requirements drive system building o • User information requirements drive system building • Users must have sufficient control over design process to ensure system reflects their business priorities and information needs diraharj • Insufficient user involvement in design effort is major cause of system failure By:Bud 11 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  14. 14. Systems development overviewSystems development overview ProgrammingProgramming • System specifications from design stage are translated into software program code TestingTesting • Ensures system produces right results • Unit testing: Tests each program in system separately o • System testing: Test functioning of system as a whole • Acceptance testing: Makes sure system is ready to be used diraharj in production setting • Test plan: All preparations for series of tests By:Bud 12 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  15. 15. Systems development overviewSystems development overview C iC iConversionConversion • Process of changing from old system to new system • Four main strategies • Parallel strategy • Direct cutoverDirect cutover • Pilot study • Phased approach o • Requires end-user training • Finalization of detailed documentation showing how diraharj Finalization of detailed documentation showing how system works from technical and end-user standpoint By:Bud 13 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  16. 16. Systems development overviewSystems development overview Production and maintenanceProduction and maintenanceProduction and maintenanceProduction and maintenance • System reviewed to determine if revisions needed • May include post-implementation audit document • Maintenance • Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency o or improve processing efficiency • 20% debugging, emergency work • 20% changes to hardware, software, data, reporting 60% f k U h i i d i diraharj • 60% of work: User enhancements, improving documentation, recoding for greater processing efficiency By:Bud 14 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  17. 17. Systems development overviewSystems development overview SUMMARY OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES CORE ACTIVITY DESCRIPTIONCORE ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION Systems analysis • Identify problem(s) • Specify solutions • Establish information requirements• Establish information requirements Systems design Create design specifications Programming Translate design specifications into code Testing • Unit test • Systems test o Testing Systems test • Acceptance test Conversion • Plan conversion • Prepare documentation diraharj p • Train users and technical staff Production and maintenance • Operate the system • Evaluate the system By:Bud 15 • Modify the system B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  18. 18. Section Alt ti t b ildi hAlt ti t b ildi hAlternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches odiraharjBy:Bud B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  19. 19. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Other SystemsOther Systems--Building MethodsBuilding Methods • Structured Methodologies • RAD Methodologies • Agile Methodologiesg g Alternative Systems AcquisitionAlternative Systems Acquisition o • Application software packages • Outsourcing diraharjBy:Bud 16 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  20. 20. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Structured Methodologies Structured methodsStructured methods • a structured approach: well-defined structure for its use, for training, and for managing projects • clearly defined deliverables and quality reviewy q y checkpoints • relies on availability of skilled personnel o y p • systems development is about providing technical solutions to business problems diraharj p By:Bud 17 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  21. 21. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Waterfall methodologyWaterfall methodology Structured Methodologies • Traditional systems lifecycle • Oldest method for building information systemsOldest method for building information systems • Phased approach divides development into formal stages (tasks in one stage finish before anotherstages (tasks in one stage finish before another stage begins) • Maintains formal division of labor between end o Maintains formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists • Emphasizes formal specifications and paperwork diraharj Emphasizes formal specifications and paperwork • Still used for building large complex systems Can be c stl time c ns min and infle ible By:Bud 18 • Can be costly, time-consuming, and inflexible B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  22. 22. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Structured Methodologies Waterfall methodology – an activity-based process in hich each hase in thewhich each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning h h l d o through implementation and maintenance diraharjBy:Bud 19 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  23. 23. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Structured Methodologies Parallel developmentParallel development • Addresses problem of time gap betweenAddresses problem of time gap between proposal and delivery • Breaks project into parallel subprojectp j p p j • Integrates them at the end odiraharjBy:Bud 20 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  24. 24. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Structured Methodologies odiraharjBy:Bud 21 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  25. 25. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches RAD Methodologies • Process of creating workable systems in a very Rapid Application Development (RAD)Rapid Application Development (RAD) g y y short period of time • Utilizes techniques such as:Utilizes techniques such as: • Visual programming and other tools for building graphical user interfaces o • Iterative prototyping of key system elements • Automation of program code generation • Close teamwork among end users and information systems diraharj • Close teamwork among end users and information systems specialists By:Bud 22 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  26. 26. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches RAD Methodologies Phased developmentPhased developmentPhased developmentPhased development • This methodology breaks the overall system into a series of versions that are developedp sequentially. • The team categorizes the requirements into a i f i th th t i t t dseries of versions, then the most important and fundamental requirements are bundled into the first version of the system. o • The analysis phase then leads into design and implementation; however, only with the set of requirements identified for version 1 diraharj requirements identified for version 1. • As each version is completed, the team begins work on a new version. By:Bud 23 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  27. 27. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Phased developmentPhased developmentRAD Methodologies odiraharj 24 By:Bud B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  28. 28. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches RAD Methodologies PrototypingPrototypingPrototypingPrototyping • Building experimental system rapidly and inexpensively for end users to evaluateinexpensively for end users to evaluate • Prototype: Working but preliminary version of information systeminformation system • Approved prototype serves as template for final system • Steps in prototyping o p p yp g • Identify user requirements • Develop initial prototype diraharj • Use prototype • Revise and enhance prototype By:Bud 25 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  29. 29. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches RAD Methodologies Prototyping processPrototyping process The process of developing a prototype can be broken down into four steps. Because a prototype can be developedp yp p quickly and inexpensively, systems builders can go through several iterations, repeating steps 3 and 4, to o iterations, repeating steps 3 and 4, to refine and enhance the prototype before arriving at the final operational one. diraharjBy:Bud 26 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  30. 30. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches RAD Methodologies Throwaway prototypingThrowaway prototyping • Use prototypes only to understand requirementsUse prototypes only to understand requirements • Prototype is not a working design • Once requirements are understood, the prototypes are thrown away o • The system is then built using SDLC diraharjBy:Bud 27 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  31. 31. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches RAD Methodologies Throwaway prototypingThrowaway prototyping odiraharjBy:Bud 28 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  32. 32. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Agile Methodologies A il d l tA il d l tAgile developmentAgile development • Focuses on rapid delivery of working software by breaking large project into several small subbreaking large project into several small sub- projects • Subprojects• Subprojects • Treated as separate, complete projects • Completed in short periods of time using iteration and o p p g continuous feedback • Emphasizes face-to-face communication over diraharj written documents, allowing collaboration and faster decision making By:Bud 29 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  33. 33. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Agile Methodologies Extreme programming (XP) MethodologyExtreme programming (XP) Methodology Breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers h h l h fcannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete. odiraharjBy:Bud 30 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  34. 34. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Agile Methodologies Extreme programming (XP) MethodologyExtreme programming (XP) Methodologyp g g ( ) gyp g g ( ) gy odiraharjBy:Bud 31 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  35. 35. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Criteria for selecting a methodCriteria for selecting a method odiraharj 32 By:Bud B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  36. 36. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Application Software Packages Software packagesSoftware packagesSoftware packagesSoftware packages • Save time and money • Many offer customization features:• Many offer customization features: • Software can be modified to meet unique requirements without destroying integrity of package software E l f l l d• Evaluation criteria for systems analysis include: • Functions provided by the package, flexibility, user friendliness, hardware and software resources, database requirements, o installation and maintenance efforts, documentation, vendor quality, and cost • Request for Proposal (RFP) diraharj Request for Proposal (RFP) • Detailed list of questions submitted to packaged-software vendors • Used to evaluate alternative software packages By:Bud 33 Used to evaluate alternative software packages B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  37. 37. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Outsourcing O t iO t iOutsourcingOutsourcing • Several types • Cloud and SaaS providers • Subscribing companies use software and computer hardware provided by vendorsp y • External vendors • Hired to design, create software D i i o • Domestic outsourcing • Driven by firms need for additional skills, resources, assets diraharj • Offshore outsourcing • Driven by cost-savings By:Bud 34 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  38. 38. Alternative systems building approachesAlternative systems building approaches Outsourcing O t iO t iOutsourcingOutsourcing • Advantages • Allows organization flexibility in IT needs • Disadvantages H dd• Hidden costs, e.g. • Identifying and selecting vendor • Transitioning to vendor o g • Opening up proprietary business processes to third party diraharjBy:Bud 35 B u i l d i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
  39. 39. T h k YT h k Y ☺☺T h a n k Yo u …T h a n k Yo u … ☺☺

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